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Molecules of Life. Chapter 2 & 3. Water properties. Unique properties based on its structure Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen Electrons spend more time with oxygen than with hydrogen Polar covalent bond ie unequal sharing. Water Properties.

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Molecules of life l.jpg

Molecules of Life

Chapter 2 & 3

Water properties l.jpg
Water properties

  • Unique properties based on its structure

  • Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen

  • Electrons spend more time with oxygen than with hydrogen

  • Polar covalent bond

    • ie unequal sharing

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Water Properties

  • Unique properties based on its polarity

  • Oxygen more electronegative than hydrogen results in unequal sharing of electron

Slight polar ends

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Polarity of Water causes “stickiness”

Water molecules “stick” to each other in distinct patterns

resulting in organization of molecules

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Why is polarity important?

  • Polarity causes molecules to interact in unique ways that influence life

  • Encourages formation of hydrogen bonds

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Water molecules tendency to “stick” to each other

Forms hydrogen bonds in 3-d

Results in surface tension


Why is surface tension important…

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Surface Tension in Biology

“Jesus Lizard”

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  • Molecules that disrupt cohesion amongst water molecules

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Don’t wash your car in the creek or dump soap down the storm wash!

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Water molecules tendency to “stick” to other polar molecules


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Cohesion & Adhesion



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Capillary ActionCohesion & Adhesion

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  • Heat= amount of energy associated with the movement of atoms and molecules in matter

  • Temperature= measures the intensity of heat

  • 1 calorie is the amount of energy to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celcius

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High Specific Heat

  • H bonds retard motion at atomic level

    • Resists heating

  • Water has a high heat capacity

    • Stabilize temperatures

      • Keeps your body temperature stabilized

      • Keeps environmental temperature stabilized

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High Heat of Vaporization

  • Relatively large amount of Energy removed when changing water from liquid to gas form

    • ~600 calories

  • Lots of Energy required to break H bonds

  • Important in an organisms ability to moderate its temperature

    • Evaporative cooling

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Evaporative Cooling

  • Aids in homeostasis maintenance

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Physical Properties of Water

  • Density

    • Density increases as temp decreases

    • Water max density 4 degrees C

    • Molecules move apart

Ice floats!




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Solvent Properties

  • Solvent properties

    • Protects ions from one another

    • Charged substances dissolve

    • Universal solvent

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Interactions with Water

  • Hydrophillic

    • Polar or charged

  • Hydrophobic

    • nonpolar

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Summary of Water’s Properties

  • Cohesion & Adhesion

  • Capillary action

    • Interaction of cohesion & adhesion in small spaces

  • Moderation of temperature

    • High specific heat

    • High heat of vaporization

  • Density properties

  • Solvent properties

    • Hydrophillic vs hydrophobic

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Molecule Structure

  • Monomers

  • Polymers

  • Macromolecules

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Molecule Formation

  • Dehydration synthesis

    • Connection of monomers through covalent bond that yields water

  • Hydrolysis

    • Disassembly of polymer into component monomers with the use of water molecule to break covalent bonds

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Organic Molecules

  • Why is carbon so important?

  • Large, complex, diverse molecules

  • Abundance of carbon based molecules

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  • Reactive

  • Covalent bonds

  • Carbon branches (backbones)

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Carbon Molecules have Complex Shapes

In Biology Shape Maters!!

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Carbon Based Molecules

  • Hydrocarbons

  • Carbohydrates

  • Lipids

  • Proteins

  • Nucleic Acids

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  • Simplest compounds

  • Only 2 elements

    • Carbon

    • Hydrogen

  • Different numbers of each element

    • Ex. Methane CH4

  • Unique shape

    • Shape matters

  • Physiological importance

    • Energy rich

    • Communication


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Silverfish and Army Ant

  • Silverfish use hydrocarbons to mask scent

  • Access to shelter & food


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Functional Groups hydrocarbons?

  • Groups of atoms that participate in chemical reactions

  • Influence nature of molecule

  • Characteristic of carbon molecule types

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Carbohydrate Characteristics hydrocarbons?

  • Sugar molecules

  • Energy sources

  • Hydrophyllic

  • Structure

    • 1:2:1 ratio CH2O

    • Monomers or polymers

      • Monosaccharides

      • Disaccharides

      • Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides are rings in aqueous solutions

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Monosaccharides hydrocarbons?

  • Simple sugars

  • Basic building blocks for organic molecules

  • Primary cellular energy

  • CH2O

  • Ex. Glucose & fructose C6H12O6

Isomers glucose vs fructose l.jpg
Isomers hydrocarbons? Glucose vs fructose

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Disaccharides hydrocarbons?

  • 2 monosaccharides

  • Formed via dehydration synthesis

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Polysaccharides hydrocarbons?

  • Aka complex carbohydrates

    • Hydrophyllic

  • Polymers of monosaccharides (3+)

  • Examples

    • Starch

    • Glycogen

    • Cellulose

Lipids l.jpg
Lipids hydrocarbons?

  • Most with no polar regions= hydrophobic (insoluble)

  • Triglycerides

    • Fats, waxes, oils

    • Glycerol & 3 fatty acids

  • Phospholipids

  • Steroids

3 fatty acids

Insulation l.jpg
Insulation hydrocarbons?

  • Reduces heat loss

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Dietary Fats hydrocarbons?

  • Excellent energy source

    • 2X E of Carbs or proteins

  • Fat

    • solid at room temperature

  • Oils

    • liquid at room temperature

    • Hydrogenation= solid

  • Flavor foods

  • Slow digestion

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Types of Fats hydrocarbons?

  • Saturated fats

  • H atoms at all sites

  • Ex. Lard, butter, solid fats

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Types of fats hydrocarbons?

  • Unsaturated fats

    • Lacking one H atom

  • Ex. Olive oil, nuts, avocado

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Health Implications hydrocarbons?

  • Saturated fats

    • Animal fats

    • Max # of H atoms ie no double bonds= parallel arrays

  • Unsaturated fats

    • Veggie oils

    • 1+ double bonds = kinks

Waxes l.jpg
Waxes hydrocarbons?

  • Minimizes evaporation

  • Protection

  • Coat leaves, fruits, skin, feathers, fur, ears

  • 1 fatty acid connected with alcohol

  • +++++ hydrophobic

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Phospholipid Membrane hydrocarbons?

  • Provides structure for cell membrane

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Steroid Hormones hydrocarbons?

  • Hydrophobic

  • Cholesterol fundamental unit

    • Cell membranes

  • Sex hormones

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Small difference amongst molecules can result in big differences



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Protein differences

  • Polymers of Amino acid

  • Complex 3D structure

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Structural Protein differences

  • Keratin, Collagen

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Storage differences

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Motion differences

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Transport differences

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Signal differences

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Defense differences

  • antibodies

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Catalysts differences

Lower the energy involved in chemical reactions

Speed up chemical reactions

Based on shape

Specific to a reaction

Help chemical reactions occur


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Lactose Intolerance differences

  • Approximately 75% of adults are lactose intolerent

  • Only 10% of Northern Europeans


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Lactose Intolerance differences

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Protein Structure differences

  • Structure of amino acids

    • Carbon backbone

    • Carboxyl group

    • Amino group

    • Hydrogen

    • R group aka “side”

      • Polar, nonpolar

  • 20 types of amino acids

  • form peptide bonds via dehdration synthesis= polypeptide

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Polypeptide differences

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Sickle Cell Disease differences

  • Changes in the sequence of amino acid

  • Can cause changes in 3D

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Denaturation differences

  • Unraveling and loss of normal protein shape

  • Caused by

    • Temperature

    • PH

    • Mutation

      • Ex sickle cell

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Nucleic acids differences

  • Information storage molecules

  • Directions for building proteins

  • Found in nuclei of eukaryotes

  • Two forms

    • Deoxyribonucleic acid

    • Ribonucleic acid

  • Polymers of nucleotides

Nucleotide l.jpg
Nucleotide differences

  • 5 Carbon sugar

    • Deoxyribose

    • ribose

  • Phosphate group

    • Po4-

  • Nitrogenous base

    • Accepts H+

    • Adenine

    • Guanine

    • Cytosine

    • Thymine

    • Uracil

  • Form polynucleotides aka dna strand

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Vary according to nitrogenous base differences

DNA Nitrogenous Bases complementary base pair

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rna differences

Different Bases

Different Sugar