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Molecules of Life. Chapter 2 & 3. Water properties. Unique properties based on its structure Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen Electrons spend more time with oxygen than with hydrogen Polar covalent bond ie unequal sharing. Water Properties.

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molecules of life

Molecules of Life

Chapter 2 & 3

water properties
Water properties
  • Unique properties based on its structure
  • Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen
  • Electrons spend more time with oxygen than with hydrogen
  • Polar covalent bond
    • ie unequal sharing
water properties3
Water Properties
  • Unique properties based on its polarity
  • Oxygen more electronegative than hydrogen results in unequal sharing of electron

Slight polar ends

polarity of water causes stickiness
Polarity of Water causes “stickiness”

Water molecules “stick” to each other in distinct patterns

resulting in organization of molecules

why is polarity important
Why is polarity important?
  • Polarity causes molecules to interact in unique ways that influence life
  • Encourages formation of hydrogen bonds
cohesion
Water molecules tendency to “stick” to each other

Forms hydrogen bonds in 3-d

Results in surface tension

Cohesion

Why is surface tension important…

surface tension in biology
Surface Tension in Biology

“Jesus Lizard”

http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=57

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WpXHpXKZtws

surfactants
Surfactants
  • Molecules that disrupt cohesion amongst water molecules
surfactants10
Surfactants

Don’t wash your car in the creek or dump soap down the storm wash!

cohesion adhesion
Cohesion & Adhesion

Adhesion

Cohesion

terminology
Terminology
  • Heat= amount of energy associated with the movement of atoms and molecules in matter
  • Temperature= measures the intensity of heat
  • 1 calorie is the amount of energy to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celcius
high specific heat
High Specific Heat
  • H bonds retard motion at atomic level
    • Resists heating
  • Water has a high heat capacity
    • Stabilize temperatures
      • Keeps your body temperature stabilized
      • Keeps environmental temperature stabilized
high heat of vaporization
High Heat of Vaporization
  • Relatively large amount of Energy removed when changing water from liquid to gas form
    • ~600 calories
  • Lots of Energy required to break H bonds
  • Important in an organisms ability to moderate its temperature
    • Evaporative cooling
evaporative cooling
Evaporative Cooling
  • Aids in homeostasis maintenance
physical properties of water
Physical Properties of Water
  • Density
    • Density increases as temp decreases
    • Water max density 4 degrees C
    • Molecules move apart

Ice floats!

water

steam

ice

solvent properties
Solvent Properties
  • Solvent properties
    • Protects ions from one another
    • Charged substances dissolve
    • Universal solvent
interactions with water
Interactions with Water
  • Hydrophillic
    • Polar or charged
  • Hydrophobic
    • nonpolar
summary of water s properties
Summary of Water’s Properties
  • Cohesion & Adhesion
  • Capillary action
    • Interaction of cohesion & adhesion in small spaces
  • Moderation of temperature
    • High specific heat
    • High heat of vaporization
  • Density properties
  • Solvent properties
    • Hydrophillic vs hydrophobic
molecule structure
Molecule Structure
  • Monomers
  • Polymers
  • Macromolecules
molecule formation
Molecule Formation
  • Dehydration synthesis
    • Connection of monomers through covalent bond that yields water
  • Hydrolysis
    • Disassembly of polymer into component monomers with the use of water molecule to break covalent bonds
organic molecules
Organic Molecules
  • Why is carbon so important?
  • Large, complex, diverse molecules
  • Abundance of carbon based molecules
carbon
Carbon
  • Reactive
  • Covalent bonds
  • Carbon branches (backbones)
carbon molecules have complex shapes
Carbon Molecules have Complex Shapes

In Biology Shape Maters!!

carbon based molecules
Carbon Based Molecules
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids
hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
  • Simplest compounds
  • Only 2 elements
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
  • Different numbers of each element
    • Ex. Methane CH4
  • Unique shape
    • Shape matters
  • Physiological importance
    • Energy rich
    • Communication
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SqGPvxzz50Q
silverfish and army ant
Silverfish and Army Ant
  • Silverfish use hydrocarbons to mask scent
  • Access to shelter & food
  • http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/11/111130202559.htm
functional groups
Functional Groups
  • Groups of atoms that participate in chemical reactions
  • Influence nature of molecule
  • Characteristic of carbon molecule types
carbohydrate characteristics
Carbohydrate Characteristics
  • Sugar molecules
  • Energy sources
  • Hydrophyllic
  • Structure
    • 1:2:1 ratio CH2O
    • Monomers or polymers
      • Monosaccharides
      • Disaccharides
      • Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides are rings in aqueous solutions

monosaccharides
Monosaccharides
  • Simple sugars
  • Basic building blocks for organic molecules
  • Primary cellular energy
  • CH2O
  • Ex. Glucose & fructose C6H12O6
disaccharides
Disaccharides
  • 2 monosaccharides
  • Formed via dehydration synthesis
polysaccharides
Polysaccharides
  • Aka complex carbohydrates
    • Hydrophyllic
  • Polymers of monosaccharides (3+)
  • Examples
    • Starch
    • Glycogen
    • Cellulose
lipids
Lipids
  • Most with no polar regions= hydrophobic (insoluble)
  • Triglycerides
    • Fats, waxes, oils
    • Glycerol & 3 fatty acids
  • Phospholipids
  • Steroids

3 fatty acids

insulation
Insulation
  • Reduces heat loss
dietary fats
Dietary Fats
  • Excellent energy source
    • 2X E of Carbs or proteins
  • Fat
    • solid at room temperature
  • Oils
    • liquid at room temperature
    • Hydrogenation= solid
  • Flavor foods
  • Slow digestion
types of fats
Types of Fats
  • Saturated fats
  • H atoms at all sites
  • Ex. Lard, butter, solid fats
types of fats44
Types of fats
  • Unsaturated fats
    • Lacking one H atom
  • Ex. Olive oil, nuts, avocado
health implications
Health Implications
  • Saturated fats
    • Animal fats
    • Max # of H atoms ie no double bonds= parallel arrays
  • Unsaturated fats
    • Veggie oils
    • 1+ double bonds = kinks
waxes
Waxes
  • Minimizes evaporation
  • Protection
  • Coat leaves, fruits, skin, feathers, fur, ears
  • 1 fatty acid connected with alcohol
  • +++++ hydrophobic
phospholipid membrane
Phospholipid Membrane
  • Provides structure for cell membrane
steroid hormones
Steroid Hormones
  • Hydrophobic
  • Cholesterol fundamental unit
    • Cell membranes
  • Sex hormones
protein
Protein
  • Polymers of Amino acid
  • Complex 3D structure
structural protein
Structural Protein
  • Keratin, Collagen
defense
Defense
  • antibodies
enzymes
Catalysts

Lower the energy involved in chemical reactions

Speed up chemical reactions

Based on shape

Specific to a reaction

Help chemical reactions occur

Enzymes
lactose intolerance
Lactose Intolerance
  • Approximately 75% of adults are lactose intolerent
  • Only 10% of Northern Europeans
  • http://www.wiley.com/college/boyer/0470003790/cutting_edge/lactose_intolerance/lactose_intolerance.htm
protein structure
Protein Structure
  • Structure of amino acids
    • Carbon backbone
    • Carboxyl group
    • Amino group
    • Hydrogen
    • R group aka “side”
      • Polar, nonpolar
  • 20 types of amino acids
  • form peptide bonds via dehdration synthesis= polypeptide
sickle cell disease
Sickle Cell Disease
  • Changes in the sequence of amino acid
  • Can cause changes in 3D
denaturation
Denaturation
  • Unraveling and loss of normal protein shape
  • Caused by
    • Temperature
    • PH
    • Mutation
      • Ex sickle cell
nucleic acids
Nucleic acids
  • Information storage molecules
  • Directions for building proteins
  • Found in nuclei of eukaryotes
  • Two forms
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid
    • Ribonucleic acid
  • Polymers of nucleotides
nucleotide
Nucleotide
  • 5 Carbon sugar
    • Deoxyribose
    • ribose
  • Phosphate group
    • Po4-
  • Nitrogenous base
    • Accepts H+
    • Adenine
    • Guanine
    • Cytosine
    • Thymine
    • Uracil
  • Form polynucleotides aka dna strand
vary according to nitrogenous base
Vary according to nitrogenous base

DNA Nitrogenous Bases complementary base pair

slide68
rna

Different Bases

Different Sugar

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