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Molecules of Life. Chapter 2. Chemistry of Life. Living things are made of 5 main atoms Carbon , Hydrogen Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus. Organic Molecules. Organic molecules have carbon Carbon is able to form strong covalent bonds. Inorganic molecules.

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Chemistry of life
Chemistry of Life

  • Living things are made of 5 main atoms

    • Carbon, Hydrogen Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus


Organic molecules
Organic Molecules

Organic molecules have carbon

Carbon is able to form strong covalent bonds


Inorganic molecules
Inorganic molecules

Inorganic molecules USUALLY do not have carbon. i.e. H2O, NaCl

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the exception. It has carbon but is inorganic


Macromolecules
Macromolecules

  • “Large” molecule

  • Formed by monomers (small molecules) bonding together

  • Large molecule with many monomers is a polymer


There are four main macromolecules in living things

  • Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins


Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates

Sugars and starches

Made of 3 atoms: Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen

Most carbs. have a C1:H2:O1 ratio (1:2:1)


Carbs
Carbs.

Monosaccharides are the monomer.

Simple Sugars

Glucose

(C6H12O6)


Carbs1
Carbs.

Monosaccharides bond together to form Polysaccharides


Carbos. have two main functions.

1. Usable (short-term) Energy storage

2. Structure and support


Cellular energy
Cellular Energy

Sugars (monosaccharides) are usable energy for cells. (glucose, fructose, sucrose)

Glucose most common sugar in cells


Energy storage
Energy Storage

Polysaccharides provide short term energy storage.

Plants use starch (in roots and stems)

Animals store glycogen in the liver.


Structural support
Structural Support

Polysaccharides can also support both plants and animals.

Cellulose is in the cell wall of plant cells to make them stronger. (indigestible)


Structural support1
Structural Support

Chitin is a polysaccharide used in the exoskeletons of insects and crabs


Lipids
LIPIDS

  • Fats, oils, and waxes


Lipids1
Lipids

Uses:

  • Long term energy storage. Six times more energy storage than carbohydrates. (fats, oils, waxes)


Lipids2
Lipids

Uses:

2. Cellular Membranes- phospholipids

3. Chemical Messengers- steroids and cholesterol


Basic fatty acid chain
Basic Fatty Acid Chain


H

O

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

O

H

H

H

H


Long carbon chain (16-24C)

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H


Fat types
Fat Types

  • Fatty acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or polyunsaturated.


Saturated fats
Saturated Fats

  • Saturated fats have only single bonds between the carbons on the long fatty acid chains.


Saturated fats1
Saturated Fats

H

H

H

O

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H


Saturated fats2
Saturated Fats

  • Found in animals

  • Solid at room temperature

  • Taste good but bad for you (heart disease)


Unsaturated fats
Unsaturated Fats

  • Unsaturated fats have one double bond between two of the carbons on the long carbon chain of the fatty acid.


Unsaturated fats1
Unsaturated Fats

H

H

O

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

O

H

H

H

H

H

H


Polyunsaturated fats
Polyunsaturated Fats

  • Polyunsaturated fats have two or more double bonds between the carbons on the long carbon chain of the fatty acid.


Polyunsaturated fats1
Polyunsaturated Fats

H

H

O

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

O

H

H

H

H

H


Unsat polyunsat fats
Unsat. & PolyunsatFats

  • Found in plants

  • Called oils

  • Liquid at room temperature

  • Better for you, but don’t taste as good.


Phospholipids
Phospholipids

  • Phospholipids are special lipids that make up cellular membranes.

  • Phospholipids are made of two fatty acid chains attached to a phosphate group.


Phospholipids1
Phospholipids

  • Phosphate

  • Head

  • Fatty Acid

  • Chains


P hospholipids
Phospholipids

  • Phospholipids are found in a bilayer (two layers).

  • The long carbon chains face the middle and the phosphate groups face the outsides.


P hospholipids1
Phospholipids



Nucleic acids1
Nucleic Acids

  • Nucleic Acids have two main functions-

  • Genetic material for all life forms (DNA, RNA)

  • Energy for all life forms (ATP)


Nucleic acids2
Nucleic Acids

The monomer for a nucleic acid is a nucleotide.


Nucleic acids3
Nucleic Acids

Nucleotides made of three parts

  • phosphate group

  • 5 carbon (pentose) sugar

  • Nitrogenous Base



Proteins1
Proteins

  • When you look at someone, the main things you see are proteins.

  • Proteins do many jobs for living things


Protein functions
Protein Functions

  • Structure- found in hair, horns and spider’s silk.

  • Transport- moving materials

  • Defense- antibodies

  • Enzymes- helping chemical reactions


Amino acids
Amino Acids

  • Proteins are made of smaller molecules called amino acids.

R

O

H

C

C

N

H

H

O

H


Amino acids1
Amino Acids

R

O

H

C

C

N

H

H

O

H

Amine Group (NH2)

Carboxyl Group (COOH)


Amino acids2
Amino Acids

  • A protein is made of up to a few hundred amino acids bonded together.

  • The bonds between amino acids are Peptide bonds


R

O

R

O

H

H

C

C

N

C

C

N

H

O

H

H

O

H

H

H

H2O


R

R

O

O

H

H

C

C

C

C

N

N

H

O

H

H

H

Peptide Bond


Amino Acids

Peptide Bond



Amino acids3
Amino Acids

  • There are 20 different amino acids.

  • The differences are changes in the R group on the amino acid.



C. Acids and Bases

  • Acid: any solution (something mixed with water) that causes there to be a greater amount of H+ than –OH.

    H+ -OH


C. Acids and Bases

  • This is significant because the H+ ion is the most reactive ion known.

  • H+ ions will attack the chemical bonds in many compounds


C. Acids and Bases (cont)

  • Acid Examples:

    HCl H+ + Cl-

    H2SO4 2H+ + (SO4)-


HCl

Cl-

H+

Cl-

H+

Cl-

H+

H+

Cl-

H+

Cl-

H+

Cl-

Cl-

H+

H+

Cl-



C. Acids and Bases (cont)

  • Base: A solution when there is a greater amount of –OH than H+.

    H+< -OH


C. Acids and Bases (cont)

  • This is significant because the OH - ion is also highly reactive.


NaOH

OH-

Na+

Na+

OH-

OH-

OH-

Na+

Na+

OH-

OH-

Na+

Na+

Na+


C. Acids and Bases (cont)

  • Base Examples:

    NaOH  Na+ + OH-

    Mg(OH)2  Mg+2 + 2OH-


C. Acids and Bases (cont)

  • Acids and bases are placed on a scale to show how strong they are.

  • The scale is called the pH scale


D. pH scale

  • Acids are ranked from 0 to 6.9

  • Strong acids are a 1 (Many more H+ than -OH)

  • Weak acids are 6.9 (almost equal H+ to –OH)


D. pH scale

  • Bases are ranked from 7.1 to 14

  • Strong Bases are a 14 (Many more –OH than H+)

  • Water is ranked 7 (Equal amounts of H+ to –OH)


C. Acids and Bases (cont)

  • Example:

    H+ + OH- H2O


H+

OH-

H+

H20

OH-

H+

OH-

H20

H20

OH-

H+

H+

H20

OH-

OH-

H+

H20

H20

H+

OH-



Enzymes
Enzymes

  • One of the most critical types of proteins are enzymes.

  • Enzymes help chemical reactions happen inside the body.


Enzymes1
Enzymes

  • Catalase, Lactase, Amylase, ATP Synthase are all examples of human enzymes


Enzymes2
Enzymes

  • An enzyme is called a biological catalyst.

  • Catalysts are chemicals that helps to lower the amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to start.


Enzymes3
Enzymes

  • If a chemical reaction is to happen, energy is required start the reaction (striking a match)

  • Called Activation Energy


Activation energy graph
Activation Energy Graph

Activation Energy

Energy Available


Enzymes4
Enzymes

  • An enzyme or catalyst does the job of lowering the activation energy needed to start chemical reactions.


Activation energy graph1
Activation Energy Graph

Activation Energy with enzyme

Energy Available


Enzymes5
Enzymes

  • An enzyme is not changed during the reaction. This allows the enzyme to be reused over and over.


Enzymes6
Enzymes

  • Enzymes are used to break molecules apart

  • Enzymes synthesize (build) new molecules from smaller pieces




Enzymes7
Enzymes

  • Enzymes are also specific in nature. They will only work with a single molecule or chemical. (lock and key)


Active site
Active Site

  • The molecule or chemical the enzyme attaches to is called the Substrate.

  • The place where the substrate attaches to the enzyme is the Active Site


Enzyme environment
Enzyme Environment

  • Enzymes require specific environments to do their job.


Enzyme environment1
Enzyme Environment

  • Two major factors affect enzyme activity.

  • Temperature

  • pH (acidic or basic)


Enzyme environment2
Enzyme Environment

  • The environment can cause an enzyme to change its shape and make it ineffective

  • If an enzyme has changed its shape, it has become Denatured



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