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Improving Teachers’ Competency in Classroom-Based Assessment. National Evaluation Institute Louisville, KY October 10, 2009. Christopher R. Gareis , Ed.D. Associate Dean for Teacher Education & Professional Services Associate Professor of Educational Leadership [email protected] 757.221.2319.

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Improving Teachers’ Competency in Classroom-Based Assessment

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Improving teachers competency in classroom based assessment

Improving Teachers’ Competency in Classroom-Based Assessment

National Evaluation Institute

Louisville, KY

October 10, 2009

Christopher R. Gareis, Ed.D.

Associate Dean for Teacher Education & Professional Services

Associate Professor of Educational Leadership

[email protected]

757.221.2319

Leslie W. Grant, Ph.D.

Visiting Assistant Professor

Curriculum & Instruction

[email protected]

757.221.2419


The need

The Need

  • Assessment is integral to teaching & learning

  • Assessment has become high-stakes

  • An unintended effect of high-stakes, standardized assessments is the narrowing of the curriculum(Clarke, Shore, Rhoades, Abrams, Miao, & Li, 2003)

a

C I

A


Many teachers are not adequately prepared in the domain of assessment

Many teachers are not adequately prepared in the domain of assessment

a

C I

A

State licensure standards

  • 1983: 10 states explicitly identified assessment as a core competency for teacher licensure (Stiggens & Conklin, 1992)

  • 2000: 14 states (Atkin et al., 2001)

    Teacher preparation programs

  • “Assessment” has typically been taught through courses in methods, tests & measurements, or educational research

  • 2000: NCATE Standards become performance-based, including contributions to student learning

  • 2006: Assessment is the weakest competency of first-year teachers(Good, McCaslin, Tsang, et al., 2006)

    Supervision and Professional Development

  • 2003: Assessment was the area least adequately documented domain of teaching responsibility among in-service teachers (Tucker, Stronge, & Gareis, 2003)

  • 2000: Teachers receive little professional development on assessment (Wenglinsky, 2000)


Assessment matters

lower case

“assessment” matters

84th %-ile

60th %-ile

+ 10 percentile point gain in student achievement

Assessment Reform Group (1999)


Assessment in the classroom

Assessment in the Classroom

Make decisions

Take actions

Communicate

Provide feedback

Caution!

Poorly made assessments

lead to

erroneous inferences


Assessment literacy

Assessment Literacy

Understanding and practically applying on a consistent basisthe concepts of validity and reliabilityas they are relevant to assessment and evaluationin the classroom in order to help students learn


Improving teachers competency in classroom based assessment

A Model for Improving Assessment Literacy

Context & Inputs

Processes of Professional Development

Outcomes for Teachers

Impact on Student Learning

Experience & Expertise of Professional Developers

Explore Alignment

C=Ia=A

  • Unpack Curriculum

  • Content

  • Cognitive levels

  • Experience & Expertise of Participants

  • - Pre-service teachers

  • - In-service teachers

  • Instructional leaders

  • Administrators

Create a Table of Specifications or “blueprint”

Psychometric Principles

-Translated into practical terms & skills for teachers

Critique an assessment for validity & reliability

  • Explore uses of ToS

  • Create an assessment

  • Critique & improve an assessment

  • Create a unit plan assessment

  • - Plan instruction

  • - Analyze assessment results

State Standardized Assessments

- de facto Curriculum?

State &/or School District Curriculum

Create good assessment items, prompts, assignments, & rubrics

District Goals, Initiatives, Imperatives, & Context


Sixth grade science standard 6 9 curriculum framework

Sixth Grade Science Standard 6.9 Curriculum Framework

Unpacking the Curriculum

Co

Co

An

Ev

An

An

Co

Ev


Improving teachers competency in classroom based assessment

Sixth Grade Science Unit on

Policy Decisions Related to the Environment (Virginia Standards)

Content of the standard identified

Cognitive level of the standard identified


Improving teachers competency in classroom based assessment

A Model for Improving Assessment Literacy

Context & Inputs

Processes of Professional Development

Outcomes for Teachers

Impact on Student Learning

Experience & Expertise of Professional Developers

Explore Alignment

C=Ia=A

Understand role of C=Ia=A

Alignment

  • Unpack Curriculum

  • Content

  • Cognitive levels

Understand relationship between assessment & evaluation

  • Experience & Expertise of Participants

  • - Pre-service teachers

  • - In-service teachers

  • Instructional leaders

  • Administrators

Create a Table of Specifications or “blueprint”

Understand & apply concepts of validity & reliability

Psychometric Principles

-Translated into practical terms & skills for teachers

Critique an assessment for validity & reliability

  • Use a ToS to:

  • Create an assessment

  • Critique & improve an assessment

  • Create a unit plan assessment

  • - Plan instruction

  • - Analyze assessment results

  • Explore uses of ToS

  • Create an assessment

  • Critique & improve an assessment

  • Create a unit plan assessment

  • - Plan instruction

  • - Analyze assessment results

State Standardized Assessments

-de facto Curriculum?

State &/or School District Curriculum

Apply principles to the spectrum of assessment types & practices

Create good assessment items, prompts, assignments, & rubrics

District Goals, Initiatives, Imperatives, & Context


Using a table of specifications to critique and improve assessments

Using a Table of Specifications to Critique and Improve Assessments

Under-sampling/

ignoring cognitive level

Is this a valid assessment of student learning?

Oversampling content and cognitive level

Under-sampling the content


Improving teachers competency in classroom based assessment

A Model for Improving Assessment Literacy

Context & Inputs

Processes of Professional Development

Outcomes for Teachers

Impact on Student Learning

Experience & Expertise of Professional Developers

Explore Alignment

C=Ia=A

Understand role of C=Ia=A

Alignment

Create assessments that yield valid and reliable data

  • Unpack Curriculum

  • Content

  • Cognitive levels

Understand relationship between assessment and evaluation

  • Experience & Expertise of Participants

  • - Pre-service teachers

  • - In-service teachers

  • Instructional leaders

  • Administrators

Use assessment data to make decisions:

- About student learning

- For student learning

- About assessments

- About instruction

Create a Table of Specifications or “blueprint”

Understand and apply concepts of validity and reliability

Psychometric Principles

-Translated into practical terms and skills for teachers

Critique an assessment for validity and reliability

  • Use a ToS to:

  • Create an assessment

  • Critique and improve an assessment

  • Create a unit plan assessment

  • - Plan instruction

  • - Analyze assessment results

Contribute to the design and development of common assessments

  • Explore uses of ToS

  • Create an assessment

  • Critique and improve an assessment

  • Create a unit plan assessment

  • - Plan instruction

  • - Analyze assessment results

State Standardized Assessments

-De Facto Curriculum?

State and/or School District Curriculum

Provide “opportunity to learn” through

aligned instruction

Apply principles to the spectrum of assessments

Create good assessment items and prompts, assignments, and rubrics

District Goals, Initiatives, or Imperatives


Using assessment results to make decisions

Using Assessment Results to Make Decisions

  • Area of Concern for Whole Class

  • re-teach

  • re-assess students

  • Jason responded incorrectly to most of these items

  • re-teach

  • re-assess

  • Poorly worded question

  • throw out question

  • adjust scoring

  • revise question


Improving teachers competency in classroom based assessment

A Model for Improving Assessment Literacy

Context & Inputs

Processes of Professional Development

Outcomes for Teachers

Impact on Student Learning

Experience & Expertise of Professional Developers

Explore Alignment

C=Ia=A

Understand role of C=Ia=A

Alignment

Create assessments that yield valid & reliable data

  • Unpack Curriculum

  • Content

  • Cognitive levels

Understand relationship between assessment & evaluation

  • Experience & Expertise of Participants

  • - Pre-service teachers

  • - In-service teachers

  • Instructional leaders

  • Administrators

Use assessment data to make decisions:

- About student learning

- For student learning

- About assessments

- About instruction

Create a Table of Specifications or “blueprint”

Understand & apply concepts of validity & reliability

Psychometric Principles

-Translated into practical terms and skills for teachers

Critique an assessment for validity & reliability

  • Use a ToS to:

  • Create an assessment

  • Critique & improve an assessment

  • Create a unit plan assessment

  • - Plan instruction

  • - Analyze assessment results

Contribute to the design & development of common assessments

  • Explore uses of ToS

  • Create an assessment

  • Critique & improve an assessment

  • Create a unit plan assessment

  • - Plan instruction

  • - Analyze assessment results

State Standardized Assessments

-De Facto Curriculum?

State &/or School District Curriculum

Provide “opportunity to learn” through

aligned instruction

Apply principles to the spectrum of assessment types & practices

Create good assessment items, prompts, assignments, & rubrics

District Goals, Initiatives, Imperatives, and Context


Improving teachers competency in classroom based assessment

Creating Common AssessmentsAre we assessing students in an appropriate way?Are we making instructional decisions based on results that are valid and reliable?


Improving teachers competency in classroom based assessment

A Model for Improving Assessment Literacy

Context & Inputs

Processes of Professional Development

Outcomes for Teachers

Impact on Student Learning

Experience & Expertise of Professional Developers

Explore Alignment

C=Ia=A

Understand role of C=Ia=A

Alignment

Create assessments that yield valid & reliable data

Exposure to the full curriculum (e.g., depth & skill development)

  • Unpack Curriculum

  • Content

  • Cognitive levels

Understand relationship between assessment & evaluation

  • Experience & Expertise of Participants

  • - Pre-service teachers

  • - In-service teachers

  • Instructional leaders

  • Administrators

Use assessment data to make decisions:

- About student learning

- For student learning

- About assessments

- About instruction

Create a Table of Specifications or “blueprint”

Understand & apply concepts of validity & reliability

Increased student achievement

Psychometric Principles

-Translated into practical terms & skills for teachers

Critique an assessment for validity & reliability

  • Use a ToS to:

  • Create an assessment

  • Critique & improve an assessment

  • Create a unit plan assessment

  • - Plan instruction

  • - Analyze assessment results

Contribute to the design & development of common assessments

  • Explore uses of ToS

  • Create an assessment

  • Critique & improve an assessment

  • Create a unit plan assessment

  • - Plan instruction

  • - Analyze assessment results

State Standardized Assessments

- de facto Curriculum?

Deeper, more meaningful learning

State &/or School District Curriculum

Provide “opportunity to learn” through

aligned instruction

Apply principles to the spectrum of assessment types & practices

Create good assessment items, prompts, assignments, & rubrics

District Goals, Initiatives, or Imperatives


Improving teachers competency in classroom based assessment

Aha Moment!

Currently used “fun” activities could facilitate and assess higher cognitive levels when properly structured

Aha Moment!

Ongoing “essential skills” target higher-order thinking


Improving teachers competency in classroom based assessment

A Model for Improving Assessment Literacy

Context & Inputs

Processes of Professional Development

Outcomes for Teachers

Impact on Student Learning

Experience & Expertise of Professional Developers

Explore Alignment

C=Ia=A

Understand role of C=Ia=A

Alignment

Create assessments that yield valid & reliable data

Exposure to the full curriculum (e.g., depth & skill development)

  • Unpack Curriculum

  • Content

  • Cognitive levels

Understand relationship between assessment & evaluation

  • Experience & Expertise of Participants

  • - Pre-service teachers

  • - In-service teachers

  • Instructional leaders

  • Administrators

Use assessment data to make decisions:

- About student learning

- For student learning

- About assessments

- About instruction

Create a Table of Specifications or “blueprint”

Understand & apply concepts of validity & reliability

Increased student achievement

Psychometric Principles

-Translated into practical terms & skills for teachers

Critique an assessment for validity & reliability

  • Use a ToS to:

  • Create an assessment

  • Critique & improve an assessment

  • Create a unit plan assessment

  • - Plan instruction

  • - Analyze assessment results

Contribute to the design & development of common assessments

  • Explore uses of ToS

  • Create an assessment

  • Critique & improve an assessment

  • Create a unit plan assessment

  • - Plan instruction

  • - Analyze assessment results

State Standardized Assessments

- de facto Curriculum?

Deeper, more meaningful learning

State &/or School District Curriculum

Provide “opportunity to learn” through

aligned instruction

Apply principles to the spectrum of assessment types & practices

Create good assessment items, prompts, assignments, & rubrics

District Goals, Initiatives, or Imperatives


Improving teachers competency in classroom based assessment

We’re in the big leagues.


Essential evaluation research questions

Essential Evaluation & Research Questions

  • In what ways and to what degree does professional development result in teachers’ improved ability to construct and use valid & reliable assessments?

  • To what degree does improved assessment literacy correlate with improved student achievement?


Improving teachers competency in classroom based assessment

A Model for Improving Assessment Literacy

Context & Inputs

Processes of Professional Development

Outcomes for Teachers

Impact on Student Learning

Experience & Expertise of Professional Developers

Explore Alignment

C=Ia=A

Understand role of C=Ia=A

Alignment

Create assessments that yield valid & reliable data

Exposure to the full curriculum (e.g., depth & skill development)

  • Unpack Curriculum

  • Content

  • Cognitive levels

Understand relationship between assessment & evaluation

  • Experience & Expertise of Participants

  • - Pre-service teachers

  • - In-service teachers

  • Instructional leaders

  • Administrators

Use assessment data to make decisions:

- About student learning

- For student learning

- About assessments

- About instruction

Create a Table of Specifications or “blueprint”

Understand & apply concepts of validity & reliability

Increased student achievement

Psychometric Principles

-Translated into practical terms & skills for teachers

Critique an assessment for validity & reliability

  • Use a ToS to:

  • Create an assessment

  • Critique & improve an assessment

  • Create a unit plan assessment

  • - Plan instruction

  • - Analyze assessment results

Contribute to the design & development of common assessments

  • Explore uses of ToS

  • Create an assessment

  • Critique & improve an assessment

  • Create a unit plan assessment

  • - Plan instruction

  • - Analyze assessment results

State Standardized Assessments

- de facto Curriculum?

Deeper, more meaningful learning

State &/or School District Curriculum

Provide “opportunity to learn” through

aligned instruction

Apply principles to the spectrum of assessment types & practices

Create good assessment items, prompts, assignments, & rubrics

District Goals, Initiatives, or Imperatives


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