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操作系统 Operating System. 课 程 简 介. 课程名称: 操作系统( Operating System ) 教 材: 《计算机操作系统》刘福岩等 《 计算机操作系统 》 汤子赢等 教学方式:授课( 4 8 )+上机实习( 16 ) 考试类别:考试 参考教材: 1、 现代操作系统 ,陈向群等译,机械工业出版社 2、 操作系统设计与实现 ,王鹏等译,电子工业出版社 3、 计算机操作系统教程 , 张尧学、史美林,清华大学出版社. 教学目的. 通过对本章的讲解使学生 了解本课程的整体介绍

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操作系统 Operating System

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Operating System


Operating System

48+16

1

2

3



1

2

3

4



1

  • 1.1

  • 1.2

  • 1.3

  • 1.4

  • 1.5

  • 1.6



11

1.1.1 .

1.


2.

  • (1)

  • (2)


3

2

1

1.3

1.2


CPU

DBMS

CADMIS

1.1.2

1.


2.


3.()

  • (1)OS

    OS

    1

    2

    3

    4


1 2

3I/O 4

1 2

3 4


  • (2)

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    • 1CPU

    • 2


  • (3)OS

  • 1:

  • 2:

  • 3GUI


1.1.3

  • 1.


2.


12

1

2

3CPU

4


12 OS

  • 11946 ~ 50

    • CPUCPU



12 OS

  • 2 50 ~ 60

    Monitor


12 OS

1

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12 OS

2


12 OS

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    CPUI/O


12 OS

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A

B

C

D

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CPU->->->


12 OS

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I/O

I/O

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A:

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B:I/O

C:I/O

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B

C


12 OS

  • CPU

  • 2


12 OS

  • 3

    • CPU

  • 4

    • <>CPU

    • <>

    • <>

    • <>


(Multi-Processing System)


CPU

17%(5/30)

33%(10/30)

50%(15/30)

33%(5/15)

66%(10/15)

100%(15/15)

3ABC51510153


12 OS

5

  • CPU(overlay)(swap)(virtual memory)

(file system)


1.1

A CPUB C

A: (1) (2)

(3) (4)

B: (1) (2)

(3) (4)

C(1) (2)

(3)CPU (4)

A(2),B(1),C(1)


12 OS

  • 470

  • 1

    • , ,(),



12 OS

2

  • 3Roll-in / Roll-out

    /


12 OS

4

TqnT=n q

/<1>;<2>


1.2

A 1002 B

A (1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

B (1)10ms (2)20ms (3)50ms

(4)100ms (5)200ms

A(4),B(2)


12 OS

  • 5

    1

    • ,


12 OS

2


12 OS

  • UNIXWindows NT


1

2

3

4


12 OS

  • 6NOS,Network Operating System


12 OS

1,.

2

3

4,


12 OS

1(HOST)()

2)) :,.

3protocolTCP/IP


12 OS

:UNIXLINUX, WINDOWS NT

OS:

<1>

<2>LAN

<3>

<4>

<5>


12 OS

  • 7Distributed Operating System

  • 1

    • ()


12 OS

2

  • 3OS

    • (1) (2)

    • (3) (4)


    • 1)

    • 2)

    • 3)


    12 OS

    • 8Multi-processor Operating System

    • 1975(multi-processor)

      • NN


    12 OS

    • OSOS

    • I/OOS


    12 OS

      • OS

      • I/O

      • ""

    • OS


    1.3

    A B C

    ABC

    (1)

    (2)

    (3)

    (4)

    A(2),B(4),C(3)


    1.4

    A(8),B(9),C(1),D(5),E(2)

    A B C D E

    AEOS OS OS

    OS OS


    13 OS

    • 1.

      (1)

      (2)

      (3)

      (4)

      (5)


    13 OS

    (1)


    13 OS

    (2)


    13 OS

    (3)

    CPUI/O

    • I/O

    • CPU


    13 OS

    (4)


    13 OS

    (5)

    • GUI


    13 OS

    • 2.

      (1)(concurrency)

      (2)(sharing)

      (3)(virtual)

      (4)(asynchronism)


    13 OS

    (1)(concurrency)

    (parallel)


    13 OS

    (2)(sharing)


    13 OS

    (3)(virtual)

    • CPU

    • VMWare Virtual PC


    13 OS

    (4)(asynchronism)


    1.4

    1.

    2.

    (1)

    (2)

    (3)

    3.

    (1) /

    (2)

    (3)

    (4)


    4.

    • /

    • 1

      2


    5.

    6.

    • (1)

      (2)

      (3)

    • (1)

      (2)

      (3)

      (4)


    • (1)

      (2)

    7.

    (1)

    (2):


    (3)

    ()

    <1>

    <2>

    <3>

    <4>

    <5>


    (4)

    • 1975PDP 11/45Solo


    8.Pentium

    Pentium

    • PentiumCSDSSSESFSGS

    • 4LinuxWindows2

    RPL

    DPL

    CSCPL

    EPLEPL=maxRPLCPL

    RPLDPLCPLRPL<=DPL && RPL<=CPL


    0

    1

    8191

    0

    1

    213-1

    15 3 2 1 0

    TI

    Pentium

    03

    (TI=0)

    (TI=1)


    • CS

      (1)

      (2) CPL

      (3) CPL

      (4) CPL

      (5)

    • (1)

      (2) JMP

      (3) CALL

      (4) CALL

      (5) CPLRPLDPL

      (6)

      (7) CALLJMPINTCPL


    15

    • 1

      1

      OS

      • I/O


    15

    2

    • (Monolithic Kernel) UNIX

    • (Micro Kernel)

      I/O


    • ( RPC, Remote Procedure Call)

      ( )


    UNIX


    15

    • 2

      OS

      OS

      (1)

      (2)

      (3)/

      (4)



    (1)


    (2)


    • ->->


    370

    1-6 CMSVM/370

    CMS

    CMS

    CMS

    CMS

    VM/370

    370

    VM/370

    • VM/37012VM/370

    • VM/3701-6/I/O


    • OS/360CMS

    • CMSVM/370CMSI/OI/OVM/370VM/370

    • CPUIntel32CPUMSDOS


    (3)/

    ()


    /


    15

    /

    • API

    • /


    1

    2

    3

    (4)

    , ; , ()


    16

    1.6.1 UNIX

    1.UNIX

    1965MITAT&TBell labsGEMultics1969MulticsGE 645 MulticsUNIX

    MulticsBell Labs Ken ThompsonDEC PDP-7Space Travel PDP-7PDP-7ThompsonRitchie16UNIX


    UNIXMulticsSHELLUNIX Brian Kernig-han MulticsUNIMULTIXcs UNIXBell Labs1971 PDP-11UNIX197311 ThompsonRitchieCUNIXUNIXC


    UNIX C

    UNIXThompsonRitchieCUnix

    UnixUnix Unix

    UnixCUnixCKeep It Simple, StupidKISS programmerC

    Ken ThompsonDennis RitchieTuring Award()()


    UnixAT&TAT&TUnixUnixUnix UnixUnix

    UNIXUNIX1989SCOXENIXUNIX SVR4SCOSCO UNIX1995SCONovell UNIXwareSunSolarisDigitalHPIBMUNIX

    1982MicrosoftBell LabsUNIX7MicrosoftMS-DOS 1.0Windows, Bill Gates UNIX


    CSRGUnixUnixvirtual memory, TCP/IP , Fast File System (FFS), reliable signals , socket UnixCSRGUnixCSRGUnixUnixBSDUnixBerkeley Software Distribution

    UNIXAT&T UNIX BSD UnixUnix

    70Unix6AT&TUnixUnixUnix System Lab,USLUnixAT&TUnix


    2.UNIX

    UNIXUNIXIEEEPOSIX UNIX1988 UIUNIX International OSFOpen Software FoundationUNIXUIAT&TSun1989 UNIX System V Res 4.0 BSD 4.3 UNIX V.4 Open Look OSFDECHPIBM1990BSD 4.3 OSF/1


    3.UNIX

    UNIX

    • UNIX

      • 1) UNIXC, , PC

      • 2) ,

      • 3) ,


    4.UNIX


    1.6.2 Windows OS

    1.

    1973Bill Gates, 19551975Paul Allen MIT()Altair BASIC Bill GatesPaul AllenBill GatesMicrosoft 1979

    Bill GatesBASIC


    MicrosoftIBM

    19242IBMIBMIBMIBMPC

    1968 Robert Noyce N.Intel Intel1971IntelIntel 4004 Intel 40044CPU


    70IBMDECHP

    1975Altair397$Intel 8080360$ $Microsoft

    PC1978APPLEPCAPPLEIIIII19781500$19825.83$


    IBM

    1979IBMIBM280$PC IBM

    IBMIBM-PCMicrosoftBASICFORTRANCP/MIntelCPUPCIBM-PCIBMPC IBM


    INTEL

    IBM PCINTELIBM1986Intel80386IBMCPUCOMPAQPC

    PC,PC,,,,APPLEIBMCOMPAQ ACERDELLNEC......,PCIntelPCWintel


    Microsoft

    1980MicrosoftIBM PCTim Paterson 86-DOS MS-DOS 1.0IBM PC-DOS19818IBM PCMicrosoftIBM DOS 1.0

    1983DOS2.0IBM PC/XTUNIX

    19848 MS-DOS 3.0PC-DOS 3.0IBM ATISA1.2M


    GUIWindows

    GUIGraphics User Interface

    70XeroxPARCGUI Xerox

    197910 Apple Steve JobsPARCApple Lisa


    Palo Alto

    • 70XeroxPalo Alto Research CenterPARC70

      • 1972Alto

      • ,

      • Small Talk


    198511 Microsoft Windows.10DOS1987Microsoft Windows 2.0

    19874 MS-DOS 3.3PC-DOS 3.3IBM PS/21.44MB

    19887 PC-DOS 4.0MS-DOS 4.0EMS

    19916: MS-DOS 5.0PC-DOS 5.0640KBIBMOS/2DOS

    1992 Windows NT2G RAM


    OS

    19924Windows 3.132APIOLE1.02.0WindowsDOSMicrosoftPC

    1993MicrosoftWindows NT 3.1,32 NT 3.1

    19949 Windows NT 3.5PC Magzine 94

    199532Windows 951998ITPC


    HAL

    1-7 Windows 2000/XP

    2.Windows2000/XP

    • Windows 2000/XP Windows 2000/XPCC


    • (1) kernel ExecutiveInterrupt Service RoutineISR

    • (2) Hardware Abstraction LayerHALHAL.dllWindows 2000/XPI/O

    • (3)

      I/O


    • 1Windows 2000/XP

    • 2

    • 3

    • 4I/O/

    • 5I/O


    1

    2I/OI/O

    3I/OI/O

    • I/OWindows 2000/XP


    (1) WinlogonSMSSWindows 2000/XP

    (2) service ProcessWindows 2000/XP

    (3) Win32PosixOS/2 1.2

    (4) user applicationWin32Windows 3.1MS-DOSPOSIXOS/2

    • Graphical User InterfaceGUIWindows 2000/XP

    • Subsystem DLLs

    • Windows 2000/XP


    Win32Win32Win32 API

    POSIXPOSIXPOSIX API

    OS/2OS/2X86

    • Windows 2000/XP

      1

      2

      3LPC


    3.Win NT

    Windows NT/


    1.6.3 Linux OS

    1.Linux

    1991Linus TorvaldsInternetIntel 386 PCLinuxLinusLinu+UNIXxLinuxLinuxGNUBerkeleyBSDMITX-WindowsLinux

    Linux POSIX 1003.1 TCP/IPSLIPPPP64LinuxMicrosoft


    Linux

    1-8 Linux

    2.Linux

    • Linux

      1

      2

      3Linux

      4


    1-9 Linux

    3.Linux


    (1)SCHED

    • CPUCPULinux

    • LinuxLinuxIPCLinuxIPC


    (2)MMU

    • Linux

    • LinuxMMU

    • kswapdkswapdI/O


    (3)Virtual File SystemVFS

    • VFSLinux

    • LinuxLinux

    • <1>Linux

      <2>Linuxext2fat

      <3>Linux


    (4)IPC

    <1>

    <2>Linux

    <3>

    <4>semaphoreE. W. Dijkstra1965

    <5>


    • RAMDISK


    (5)NET

    • <1>

      <2>


    InternetIT21Internet/IntranetInternetWindowsUnix2164 UNIX


    *1.

    2. ? ? ?

    3.


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