Topic 1: Classification
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Topic 1: Classification. Classification History. Taxonomy : Branch of biology that groups all life according to their characteristics and history All life on earth is placed into 1 of 6 kingdoms: Eubacteria Archaea Protista Fungi Plants Animals. Carolus Linnaeus.

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Topic 1 classification

Topic 1: Classification


Topic 1 classification

Classification

History

  • Taxonomy: Branch of biology that groups all life according to their characteristics and history

  • All life on earth is placed into 1 of 6 kingdoms:

    • Eubacteria

    • Archaea

    • Protista

    • Fungi

    • Plants

    • Animals


Topic 1 classification

Carolus

Linnaeus

  • Developed classification system based on physical features

  • Binomial Nomenclature: System of giving every organism 2 names

    • 1st word: Genus (broad)

    • 2nd word: Species (specific)

  • Example: House cat

    • Genus: Felis (cougars, lions, tigers, cheetahs, etc…)

    • Species: catus


Topic 1 classification

Binomial Format

  • When Writing:

    • Genus capitalized

    • species lowercase

    • Underlined entirely

      Ex: Homo sapiens

  • When Typing:

    • Same, except use italics

      Ex: Homo sapiens

Bos taurus


Topic 1 classification

Taxa

  • 7 individual levels (taxa) used to classify organisms

    Kingdom (broadest)

    Phylum

    Class

    Order

    Family

    Genus

    Species (specific)

  • Allows relationships to be clearly seen


Topic 1 classification

The more levels in common...the more related the species.


Topic 1 classification

How is Life Classified Today?

  • Taxonomy: grouping life according to shared traits (not just physical)

  • 1) Morphology: studying the form and structure of organisms

    • Comparing the morphology (traits) of different species shows similarities and/or differences

Mammals


Morphology shows non relationships also

Morphology Shows Non-Relationships Also!

Dolphins are not FISH!


Topic 1 classification

2) Biochemical Evidence

  • Comparing DNA, amino acids, & proteins

  • DNA mutations occur at known rates

    • Splits in evolution can be estimated based on how different DNA between 2 organisms is

    • More different the DNA…longer ago common ancestor


Topic 1 classification

3) Embryo Development

  • Patters of development studied to identify relatedness

  • Blastopore (1st opening of embryo) shows humans & starfish are more related than humans & squid

Mouth

Anus

Anus


Topic 1 classification

Phylogeny

all have amniotic eggs

  • Defined: Evolutionary history of an organism

  • Shown by cladograms

    • Group life according to similarities

      How many traits does a primate & amphibian share?

      Which organisms do not have amniotic eggs?


Topic 1 classification

  • 1) What does an amphibian & crocodile have in common?

    Vertebrae, Bony skeleton, Four limbs

  • 2) List the traits of a ray-finned fish.

    Doesn’t have 4 limbs, has bony skeleton, has vertebrae


Topic 1 classification

Virus: A biological particle composed of nucleic acid and protein

Intracellular Parasites: organism that must “live” inside a host

Topic 2: Viruses


Topic 1 classification

Reproduce

Have nucleic acid

Adapt to surroundings

Have organization

Not made of cells or organelles

Can’t reproduce on own

Don’t metabolize energy

Don’t perform cellular processes

Are viruses alive?

No

Yes


Topic 1 classification

All Have:

1) Capsid: coat of protein that surrounds nucleic acid

2) Nucleic Acid: RNA or DNA

Some Have:

Tail Fibers: Used for attachment (not legs)

Shapes vary

Virus

Parts


Topic 1 classification

1st Step: Attachment

Virus attaches to a cell receptor

No attachment = No infection

The Lytic Cycle


Topic 1 classification

2nd Step: Entry

Virus enzyme weakens cell membrane

Genetic material (DNA or RNA) enters host cell

The Lytic Cycle


Topic 1 classification

3rd Step: Replication

Virus DNA/RNA makes virus proteins by transcription/ translation

The Lytic Cycle


Topic 1 classification

4th Step: Assembly

New virus proteins are assembled into new viruses

The Lytic Cycle


Topic 1 classification

5th Step: Release

Virus enzyme causes host to burst

Viruses are released to find new host…Cycle repeats

The Lytic Cycle


Topic 1 classification

The Lysogenic Cycle

1) Attachment: Virus attaches to host cell

Host cell DNA

Pro-phage

2) Entry: Virus nucleic acid enter the cell, but combines with host cell DNA.


Topic 1 classification

The host cell divides by mitosis, making a copy of the prophage each time.

Pro-phage

Pro-phage

Pro-phage

Two infected cells.


Topic 1 classification

Two cells divide my mitosis to make 4 infected cells.

Pro-phage

Pro-phage


Topic 1 classification

Four infected cells divide by mitosis to make 8…and so on….


Topic 1 classification

Virus DNA eventually becomes active and starts to create viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

All infected cells burst, releasing many more viruses to restart the cycle.


Topic 1 classification

Topic 3: Bacteria


Topic 1 classification

Prokaryote

Cells w/o nucleus & membrane bound organelles

Chromosome & plasmids float freely in cytoplasm

Ribosomes

create proteins

Flagella

used in movement

Pili

act as anchors

Connect to other cell during conjugation

Endospore

“cocoon” to protect DNA in harsh times

Cell Structure


Topic 1 classification

Many bacteria grow in colonies

3 Basic Shapes:

1) Rod

2) Spherical

3) Spiral

Bacterial Shapes


Bacteria asexual reproduction

Bacteria Asexual Reproduction

Binary Fission: asexual reproduction where one cell splits into two cells

Both cells have identical sets of DNA

Less genetic diversity

Click pic


Bacteria sexual reproduction

Bacteria Sexual Reproduction

Conjugation: process where DNA is exchanged between bacteria cells

Cells connect by pili

DNA duplicated and then exchanged

Creates genetic diversity

Gene to resist ampicillin

Gene to resist ampicillin


Topic 1 classification

Anaerobic

Obligate anaerobic = cannot live in oxygen

Aerobic

Facultative aerobic = can live with or without oxygen

Obligate aerobic = must live in oxygen

Respiration

The bacteria that causes TB lives in your lungs…which type is it?


Identifying bacteria with gram staining

Identifying Bacteria with Gram Staining

Gram negative:

stains pink

extra outer layer

harder to treat

  • Gram positive:

    • stains purple

    • lack extra covering

    • easier to treat


Gram stain overview

Gram Stain Overview


Topic 1 classification

Brush,

Floss,

& Rinse

Your

Teeth!

GINGIVITIS

HEALTHY

MODERATE PERIODONTITIS

ADVANCED PERIODONTITIS


Topic 1 classification

Antibiotic Resistance

  • Problem: Bacteria are adapting to live with the antibiotics

  • Causes:

    • 1) Using antibiotics on viruses or without prescription

    • 2) Not completing prescription

    • 3) Overuse on farm animals

  • Importance: Bacteria infections harder to treat


Topic 1 classification

Most bacteria killed

Strong Survive

Resistant Bacteria Only

Strong Reproduce


Topic 1 classification

Topic 4: Protista


Protista in general

Protista in General

  • Usually unicellular

  • Reproduction:

    • Asexual, Sexual, Both

  • Kingdom for life that doesn’t fit in animals, plant or fungi kingdom

  • Mostly aquatic life

  • 3 main categories based on feeding

    • Animal-like

    • Plant-like

    • Protista-like


Animal like protista protozoans

Animal-Like Protista (Protozoans)

  • Aquatic, unicellular

  • Heterotrophic

    • Feed & ingest prey

    • pathogens, parasites, predators

    • 3 subcategories based on how they move

  • 1) Pseudopods : have pseudopodia (false- feet)

    • Engulf by phagocytosis

  • 2) Flagellates: have flagella

  • 3) Ciliates: have cilia


Pseudopod amoeba feeding

Pseudopod (Amoeba) feeding


Pseudopod video clips

Pseudopod Video Clips

File title: Amoeba2

File title: Amoeba4


Ciliates video clip

Ciliates Video Clip

File title: Paramecia2

File title: Rotifer2


Flagelletes video clip

Flagelletes Video Clip

File title: Euglena2

File title: Euglena


Animal like protista disease

Animal-Like Protista & Disease

  • Malaria: Infected mosquito bites

    • Fever, vomiting, coma, death

  • Sleeping sickness: bite of tsetse flies

    • Coma & death


Plantlike protista

Plantlike Protista

  • AKA: Algae

  • Perform photosynthesis with chloroplasts

    • Provide ~ ½ the O2 on earth

    • Most unicellular

    • Phytoplankton: basis of aquatic food chains (producers)

  • Few multicellular

    • Seaweed, kelp

  • Why not plants?

    • No true leaves, stems, or roots

    • most unicellular


Fungus like protista

Fungus-like Protista

  • Heterotrophs

    • Decomposers: recycle nutrients

    • Absorb nutrients

  • Moist environments

  • Slime Molds: large (~1 meter) single celled mass of cytoplasm

  • Water molds: can be parasitic

    • Potato blight: disease & the Irish potato famine


Topic 1 classification

Topic 5: Fungi


Fungi structure basics

Fungi Structure & Basics

Hyphae: thin strands of cells that make up the fungus body

Hyphae spread into a larger mass (mycelium)

Fruiting body: Above-ground reproductive structure

Cell wall of chiton (common to animals)

Heterotrophs: hyphae release enzymes to absorb nutrients

Classification determined by sexual reproduction methods

strands of hyphae


Zygote fungi

Zygote Fungi

Bread Molds

Some help “fix” nitrogen in atmosphere

Asexual Reproduction

Sporangia produce spores

Spores can grow into new hyphae when released

.

.

.


Topic 1 classification

Haploid spores land

Hyphae grow into a mat of mycelium

Sporangia grow from the mycelium

.

Sporangia release spores

.

.

.

ground


Topic 1 classification

The process repeats

.

.

.

.

ground


Zygote fungi1

Zygote Fungi

Sexual reproduction

Hyphae from 2 organisms fuse and form a diploid zygospore

Zygospore grows new hyphae when released


Topic 1 classification

Spores land

Hyphae grow into a mat of mycelium

.

.

ground


Topic 1 classification

Hyphae of fungi grow together

Diploid zygospore is created

New diploid hyphae grow from the zygospore

Hyphae of fungus #1

Hyphae of fungus #2


Topic 1 classification

Hyphae grow into a mat of mycelium….

Sporangia grow from the mycelium

Sporangia release spores

.

.

.

ground


Topic 1 classification

The cycle repeats

.

.

ground


Topic 1 classification

Hyphae of fungus #1

Hyphae of fungus #2


Topic 1 classification

.

.

.

ground


Club fungi

Club Fungi

Basidia: club-like structure that produces sexual spores (located in gills underneath)

Hyphae of two individuals grow into mycelium

Fruiting body created to make spores


Club fungi1

Club Fungi


Topic 1 classification

Spores will land

Fungus #1 mycelium grows underground….Fungus #2 mycelium grows underground

Two fungi grow together and fuse

.

Diploid fruiting body grows from the mass

.

Haploid spores created & released from the underside of the fruiting body

.

.

.

.

.

ground


Topic 1 classification

Spores will land

New hyphae will grow into a new mycelium

Cycle repeats

.

.

ground


Sac fungi

Sac Fungi

Ascus: sac that contain spores during sexual reproduction

Two hyphae grow together to create fruiting body

Spores released

Ex: Yeast, morals, truffles


Topic 1 classification

Spores will land

Fungus #1 mycelium grows underground….Fungus #2 mycelium grows underground

Two fungi grow together and fuse

.

Diploid fruiting body grows from the mass

.

Haploid spores created & released from the ascus

ground


Topic 1 classification

Spores will land

New hyphae will grow into a new mycelium

Cycle repeats

.

.

ground


Lichens

Lichens

Fungus + blue-green bacteria or green algae

Mycelium of fungi surrounds the green organism

Grow on rocks (pioneer species), soil, trees

Mutualistic relationship

Algae/bacteria: obtains warmth, substrate to grow in

Fungus: obtains food

Food source & help create soil during succession


Topic 6 plants

Topic 6: Plants


Plant evolution

Plant Evolution

Evolved from green algae (450 mya)

Green algae ancestor

Multicellular body

Cells w/ channels to communicate

Reproduce w/ sperm & egg

Early plants

Low growth (nonvascular)


Land adaptations

Land Adaptations

Retain Moisture

Early plants grew near waters edge

Cuticle: waxy coating


Land adaptations1

Land Adaptations

Transporting Resources

Vascular system: tissue to transport nutrients

Up from the roots (ex: water)

Down from the leaves (ex: sugars)

Allows taller growth


Land adaptations2

Land Adaptations

Growing upright

Large plants need to support own weight

Lignin: hardens cell wall; gives wood strength


Land adaptations3

Land Adaptations

Reproduction on land

Pollen: carried by wind/animals

Seeds: hard coat protects embryo inside


Alternation of generations in general

Alternation of generations (In general)

Diploid zygote created

Diploid zygote grows into a diploid sporophyte

Haploid spores created by meiosis

Haploid spores grow into haploid gametophytes

Male gametophyte creates haploid sperm

Female gametophyte creates haploid egg

Sperm and egg fuse to make a diploid zygote

Cycle restarts


Group 1 seedless nonvascular plants

Group 1: Seedless, Nonvascular Plants

Live in moist environments to reproduce

Liverworts

Hornworts

Mosses


Group 1 seedless nonvascular plants1

Group 1: Seedless, Nonvascular Plants

Mosses

Grow low to ground to retain moisture (nonvascular)

Lack true leaves

Common pioneer species during succession

Gametophyte most common (dominant)


Moss life cycle

Moss Life Cycle


Topic 1 classification

1)Moss gametophytes grow near the ground (haploid stage)

2) Through water, sperm from the male gametophyte will swim to the female gametophyte to create a diploid zygote

3) Diploid sporophyte will grow from zygote

4) Sporophyte will create and release haploid spores

.

.

.

.

.

sporophyte

egg

zygote

zygote

egg

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

male

male

gametophyte

female

female

female

male

female

male


Topic 1 classification

5) Haploid spores land and grow into new gametophytes

6) The process repeats

.

.

.

.

.

ground

gametophyte


Topic 1 classification

.

.

.

.

.

sporophyte

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

male

male

gametophyte

female

female

female

male

female

male


Group 2 seedless vascular plants

Group 2: Seedless, Vascular Plants

Vascular system allows nutrient transport to greater heights

Live in moist environments to reproduce

Club mosses

Horsetails

Ferns


Group 2 seedless vascular plants1

Group 2: Seedless, Vascular Plants

Ferns

Vascular: allows taller growth

Haploid spores (meiosis) on underside of fronds

Spores grow into gametophyte

Sperm & egg create a zygote


Fern life cycle

Fern Life Cycle


Topic 1 classification

1) Sporophyte creates and releases haploid spores

.

.

.

.

Adult

Sporophyte (diploid)

ground


Topic 1 classification

2) Haploid spores land in the soil

.

.

.

.

ground


Topic 1 classification

3) From the haploid spores, gametophyte grows in the soil

Let’s zoom in

ground


Topic 1 classification

4) Sperm swim through water from the male parts (antheridium) to the female parts (archegonia)

Let’s zoom back out

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote


Topic 1 classification

5) Diploid sporophyte grows from the zygote

sporophyte

ground


Topic 1 classification

6) Fronds uncurls into leaves.

7) Cycle repeats

-- Haploid spores created and released

.

.

.

.

ground


Topic 1 classification

Haploid spores land in the soil

.

.

.

.

ground


Topic 1 classification

From the haploid spores, gametophyte grows in the soil

Let’s zoom in

ground


Topic 1 classification

Sperm swim through water from the male parts (antheridium) to the female parts (archegonia)

Let’s zoom back out

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote


Topic 1 classification

Diploid sporophyte grows from the zygote

sporophyte

ground


Topic 1 classification

Fronds uncurls into leaves.

Cycle repeats

.

.

.

.

ground


Seeds and their advantages

Seeds and their advantages

1) Seed plants don’t depend on water to reproduce

Pollen (contains sperm) combines with egg

Egg hardens into a seed

2) Nourishment and protection

Nourish: Nutrients inside seed for the embryo

Protection: Hard shell

3) Allow dispersal

Carried by wind, water, animals


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants

Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants

Type 1: Gymnosperms

Seeds not enclosed in a fruit

produced inside cones

Cone = reproductive structure

Male cones: produce pollen

Female cones: produce eggs and seeds


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants1

Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants

Gymosperm example: Conifers

Cone plants

Needle-like leaves

Common to lumber industry

Evergreen, Pine, Redwood, Cedar


Conifer life cycle

Conifer Life Cycle


1 male and female seed cones grow in adult sporophytes

1) Male and female seed cones grow in adult sporophytes


Topic 1 classification

2) Pollen grains released from the male seed cones-- Pollen is the male gametophyte

Male cones make pollen

Female cones make eggs

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote


Topic 1 classification

seed

seed

seed

seed

3) Seeds begin to harden inside the female cones


Topic 1 classification

4) Seeds released


Topic 1 classification

5) Seed will land

ground


Topic 1 classification

6) Seedling grows into (sporophyte)…the cycle repeats

ground


1 male and female seed cones grow in adult sporophytes1

1) Male and female seed cones grow in adult sporophytes


Topic 1 classification

Male cones make pollen

Female cones make eggs

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote


Topic 1 classification

seed

seed

seed

seed

3) Seeds begin to harden inside the female cones


Topic 1 classification

4) Seeds released


Topic 1 classification

5) Seed will land

ground


Topic 1 classification

6) Seedling grows into (sporophyte)…the cycle repeats

ground


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants2

Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants

Type 2: Angiosperms (flowering plants)

Flower = reproductive structure

Protects gamete and fertilized eggs

Seeds enclosed in a fruit

Fruit: Plant ovary

Often attract animals to disperse the seeds inside


Fruit production

Fruit Production

  • In the seed

    • Embryo

    • Food supply

  • Surrounding ovary grows into a fruit

  • Fruit attracts animals to eat and spread the seeds

Fruit seeds in fox droppings


Angiosperm types flowering plants

Angiosperm types(flowering plants)

2 groups: Monocots and Dicots (based on seed type)

Cotyledon: embryonic leaf

Monocots: embryo with 1 seed leaf

Dicots: embryo with 2 seed leaves


Angiosperm life spans

Angiosperm Life Spans

  • Three Life Span Types:

  • Annuals

    • 1 year: Mature…produce seeds…die

  • Biennials

    • 1st year: produces short stem, low growth leaves, food reserves

    • 2nd year: taller stem, leaves, flowers, seeds

  • Perennials

    • Live for more than 2 years


Flowers

Flowers

  • Reproductive structure of flowering plants

  • Sepals

    • outer ring of leaves

    • protection

  • Petals

    • Inner ring of leaves

    • Brightly colored to attract pollinators

  • Open petals & sepals reveal male and female structures


Flowers1

Flowers

  • Female Carpel

    • Inner most part

    • Ovary: within the base (female gametophyte)

    • Stigma: sticky tip, collects pollen

  • Male Stamen

    • Surrounds carpel

    • Anther: produces pollen (male gametophyte)


Angiosperm life cycle

Angiosperm Life Cycle


Topic 1 classification

Pollen stick to animal or released into wind


Topic 1 classification

Animal finds a new flower to feed on


Topic 1 classification

Pollen transferred to the stigma….seeds develop

egg

zygote


Topic 1 classification

Flower petals start to fall off and dies

zygote


Topic 1 classification

Fruit falls to ground


Topic 1 classification

Animals eat fruit….seeds come out the other end…cycle repeats

seed


Topic 1 classification

Pollen stick to animal or released into wind


Topic 1 classification

Animal finds a new flower to feed on


Topic 1 classification

Pollen transferred to the stigma….seeds develop

egg

zygote


Topic 1 classification

Flower dies

zygote


Topic 1 classification

Fruit falls to ground


Topic 1 classification

Animals eat fruit….seeds come out the other end…cycle repeats

seed


End of the semester

End of the Semester!


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