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Topic 1: Classification. Classification History. Taxonomy : Branch of biology that groups all life according to their characteristics and history All life on earth is placed into 1 of 6 kingdoms: Eubacteria Archaea Protista Fungi Plants Animals. Carolus Linnaeus.

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Classification

History

  • Taxonomy: Branch of biology that groups all life according to their characteristics and history

  • All life on earth is placed into 1 of 6 kingdoms:

    • Eubacteria

    • Archaea

    • Protista

    • Fungi

    • Plants

    • Animals


Carolus

Linnaeus

  • Developed classification system based on physical features

  • Binomial Nomenclature: System of giving every organism 2 names

    • 1st word: Genus (broad)

    • 2nd word: Species (specific)

  • Example: House cat

    • Genus: Felis (cougars, lions, tigers, cheetahs, etc…)

    • Species: catus


Binomial Format

  • When Writing:

    • Genus capitalized

    • species lowercase

    • Underlined entirely

      Ex: Homo sapiens

  • When Typing:

    • Same, except use italics

      Ex: Homo sapiens

Bos taurus


Taxa

  • 7 individual levels (taxa) used to classify organisms

    Kingdom (broadest)

    Phylum

    Class

    Order

    Family

    Genus

    Species (specific)

  • Allows relationships to be clearly seen



How is Life Classified Today?

  • Taxonomy: grouping life according to shared traits (not just physical)

  • 1) Morphology: studying the form and structure of organisms

    • Comparing the morphology (traits) of different species shows similarities and/or differences

Mammals



2) Biochemical Evidence

  • Comparing DNA, amino acids, & proteins

  • DNA mutations occur at known rates

    • Splits in evolution can be estimated based on how different DNA between 2 organisms is

    • More different the DNA…longer ago common ancestor


3) Embryo Development

  • Patters of development studied to identify relatedness

  • Blastopore (1st opening of embryo) shows humans & starfish are more related than humans & squid

Mouth

Anus

Anus


Phylogeny

all have amniotic eggs

  • Defined: Evolutionary history of an organism

  • Shown by cladograms

    • Group life according to similarities

      How many traits does a primate & amphibian share?

      Which organisms do not have amniotic eggs?



Virus: A biological particle composed of nucleic acid and protein

Intracellular Parasites: organism that must “live” inside a host

Topic 2: Viruses


Reproduce

Have nucleic acid

Adapt to surroundings

Have organization

Not made of cells or organelles

Can’t reproduce on own

Don’t metabolize energy

Don’t perform cellular processes

Are viruses alive?

No

Yes


All Have:

1) Capsid: coat of protein that surrounds nucleic acid

2) Nucleic Acid: RNA or DNA

Some Have:

Tail Fibers: Used for attachment (not legs)

Shapes vary

Virus

Parts


1st Step: Attachment

Virus attaches to a cell receptor

No attachment = No infection

The Lytic Cycle


2nd Step: Entry

Virus enzyme weakens cell membrane

Genetic material (DNA or RNA) enters host cell

The Lytic Cycle


3rd Step: Replication

Virus DNA/RNA makes virus proteins by transcription/ translation

The Lytic Cycle


4th Step: Assembly

New virus proteins are assembled into new viruses

The Lytic Cycle


5th Step: Release

Virus enzyme causes host to burst

Viruses are released to find new host…Cycle repeats

The Lytic Cycle


The Lysogenic Cycle

1) Attachment: Virus attaches to host cell

Host cell DNA

Pro-phage

2) Entry: Virus nucleic acid enter the cell, but combines with host cell DNA.


The host cell divides by mitosis, making a copy of the prophage each time.

Pro-phage

Pro-phage

Pro-phage

Two infected cells.


Two cells divide my mitosis to make 4 infected cells. prophage each time.

Pro-phage

Pro-phage



Virus DNA eventually becomes active and starts to create viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

All infected cells burst, releasing many more viruses to restart the cycle.


Topic 3: Bacteria viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.


Prokaryote viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Cells w/o nucleus & membrane bound organelles

Chromosome & plasmids float freely in cytoplasm

Ribosomes

create proteins

Flagella

used in movement

Pili

act as anchors

Connect to other cell during conjugation

Endospore

“cocoon” to protect DNA in harsh times

Cell Structure


Many bacteria grow in colonies viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

3 Basic Shapes:

1) Rod

2) Spherical

3) Spiral

Bacterial Shapes


Bacteria asexual reproduction
Bacteria Asexual Reproduction viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Binary Fission: asexual reproduction where one cell splits into two cells

Both cells have identical sets of DNA

Less genetic diversity

Click pic


Bacteria sexual reproduction
Bacteria Sexual Reproduction viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Conjugation: process where DNA is exchanged between bacteria cells

Cells connect by pili

DNA duplicated and then exchanged

Creates genetic diversity

Gene to resist ampicillin

Gene to resist ampicillin


Anaerobic viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Obligate anaerobic = cannot live in oxygen

Aerobic

Facultative aerobic = can live with or without oxygen

Obligate aerobic = must live in oxygen

Respiration

The bacteria that causes TB lives in your lungs…which type is it?


Identifying bacteria with gram staining
Identifying Bacteria with Gram Staining viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Gram negative:

stains pink

extra outer layer

harder to treat

  • Gram positive:

    • stains purple

    • lack extra covering

    • easier to treat


Gram stain overview
Gram Stain Overview viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.


Brush, viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Floss,

& Rinse

Your

Teeth!

GINGIVITIS

HEALTHY

MODERATE PERIODONTITIS

ADVANCED PERIODONTITIS


Antibiotic Resistance viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

  • Problem: Bacteria are adapting to live with the antibiotics

  • Causes:

    • 1) Using antibiotics on viruses or without prescription

    • 2) Not completing prescription

    • 3) Overuse on farm animals

  • Importance: Bacteria infections harder to treat


Most bacteria killed viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Strong Survive

Resistant Bacteria Only

Strong Reproduce


Topic 4: Protista viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.


Protista in general
Protista in General viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

  • Usually unicellular

  • Reproduction:

    • Asexual, Sexual, Both

  • Kingdom for life that doesn’t fit in animals, plant or fungi kingdom

  • Mostly aquatic life

  • 3 main categories based on feeding

    • Animal-like

    • Plant-like

    • Protista-like


Animal like protista protozoans
Animal-Like Protista (Protozoans) viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

  • Aquatic, unicellular

  • Heterotrophic

    • Feed & ingest prey

    • pathogens, parasites, predators

    • 3 subcategories based on how they move

  • 1) Pseudopods : have pseudopodia (false- feet)

    • Engulf by phagocytosis

  • 2) Flagellates: have flagella

  • 3) Ciliates: have cilia


Pseudopod amoeba feeding
Pseudopod (Amoeba) feeding viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.


Pseudopod video clips
Pseudopod Video Clips viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

File title: Amoeba2

File title: Amoeba4


Ciliates video clip
Ciliates Video Clip viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

File title: Paramecia2

File title: Rotifer2


Flagelletes video clip
Flagelletes Video Clip viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

File title: Euglena2

File title: Euglena


Animal like protista disease
Animal-Like Protista & Disease viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

  • Malaria: Infected mosquito bites

    • Fever, vomiting, coma, death

  • Sleeping sickness: bite of tsetse flies

    • Coma & death


Plantlike protista
Plantlike Protista viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

  • AKA: Algae

  • Perform photosynthesis with chloroplasts

    • Provide ~ ½ the O2 on earth

    • Most unicellular

    • Phytoplankton: basis of aquatic food chains (producers)

  • Few multicellular

    • Seaweed, kelp

  • Why not plants?

    • No true leaves, stems, or roots

    • most unicellular


Fungus like protista
Fungus-like Protista viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

  • Heterotrophs

    • Decomposers: recycle nutrients

    • Absorb nutrients

  • Moist environments

  • Slime Molds: large (~1 meter) single celled mass of cytoplasm

  • Water molds: can be parasitic

    • Potato blight: disease & the Irish potato famine


Topic 5: Fungi viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.


Fungi structure basics
Fungi Structure & Basics viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Hyphae: thin strands of cells that make up the fungus body

Hyphae spread into a larger mass (mycelium)

Fruiting body: Above-ground reproductive structure

Cell wall of chiton (common to animals)

Heterotrophs: hyphae release enzymes to absorb nutrients

Classification determined by sexual reproduction methods

strands of hyphae


Zygote fungi
Zygote Fungi viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Bread Molds

Some help “fix” nitrogen in atmosphere

Asexual Reproduction

Sporangia produce spores

Spores can grow into new hyphae when released

.

.

.


Haploid spores land viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Hyphae grow into a mat of mycelium

Sporangia grow from the mycelium

.

Sporangia release spores

.

.

.

ground


The process repeats viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

.

.

.

.

ground


Zygote fungi1
Zygote Fungi viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Sexual reproduction

Hyphae from 2 organisms fuse and form a diploid zygospore

Zygospore grows new hyphae when released


Spores land viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Hyphae grow into a mat of mycelium

.

.

ground


Hyphae of fungi grow together viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Diploid zygospore is created

New diploid hyphae grow from the zygospore

Hyphae of fungus #1

Hyphae of fungus #2


Hyphae grow into a mat of mycelium…. viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Sporangia grow from the mycelium

Sporangia release spores

.

.

.

ground


The cycle repeats viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

.

.

ground


Hyphae of fungus #1 viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Hyphae of fungus #2


. viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

.

.

ground


Club fungi
Club Fungi viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Basidia: club-like structure that produces sexual spores (located in gills underneath)

Hyphae of two individuals grow into mycelium

Fruiting body created to make spores


Club fungi1
Club Fungi viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.


Spores will land viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Fungus #1 mycelium grows underground….Fungus #2 mycelium grows underground

Two fungi grow together and fuse

.

Diploid fruiting body grows from the mass

.

Haploid spores created & released from the underside of the fruiting body

.

.

.

.

.

ground


Spores will land viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

New hyphae will grow into a new mycelium

Cycle repeats

.

.

ground


Sac fungi
Sac Fungi viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Ascus: sac that contain spores during sexual reproduction

Two hyphae grow together to create fruiting body

Spores released

Ex: Yeast, morals, truffles


Spores will land viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Fungus #1 mycelium grows underground….Fungus #2 mycelium grows underground

Two fungi grow together and fuse

.

Diploid fruiting body grows from the mass

.

Haploid spores created & released from the ascus

ground


Spores will land viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

New hyphae will grow into a new mycelium

Cycle repeats

.

.

ground


Lichens
Lichens viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Fungus + blue-green bacteria or green algae

Mycelium of fungi surrounds the green organism

Grow on rocks (pioneer species), soil, trees

Mutualistic relationship

Algae/bacteria: obtains warmth, substrate to grow in

Fungus: obtains food

Food source & help create soil during succession


Topic 6 plants
Topic 6: Plants viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.


Plant evolution
Plant Evolution viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Evolved from green algae (450 mya)

Green algae ancestor

Multicellular body

Cells w/ channels to communicate

Reproduce w/ sperm & egg

Early plants

Low growth (nonvascular)


Land adaptations
Land Adaptations viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Retain Moisture

Early plants grew near waters edge

Cuticle: waxy coating


Land adaptations1
Land Adaptations viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Transporting Resources

Vascular system: tissue to transport nutrients

Up from the roots (ex: water)

Down from the leaves (ex: sugars)

Allows taller growth


Land adaptations2
Land Adaptations viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Growing upright

Large plants need to support own weight

Lignin: hardens cell wall; gives wood strength


Land adaptations3
Land Adaptations viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Reproduction on land

Pollen: carried by wind/animals

Seeds: hard coat protects embryo inside


Alternation of generations in general
Alternation of generations (In general) viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Diploid zygote created

Diploid zygote grows into a diploid sporophyte

Haploid spores created by meiosis

Haploid spores grow into haploid gametophytes

Male gametophyte creates haploid sperm

Female gametophyte creates haploid egg

Sperm and egg fuse to make a diploid zygote

Cycle restarts


Group 1 seedless nonvascular plants
Group 1: Seedless, Nonvascular Plants viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Live in moist environments to reproduce

Liverworts

Hornworts

Mosses


Group 1 seedless nonvascular plants1
Group 1: Seedless, Nonvascular Plants viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Mosses

Grow low to ground to retain moisture (nonvascular)

Lack true leaves

Common pioneer species during succession

Gametophyte most common (dominant)


Moss life cycle
Moss Life Cycle viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.


1)Moss gametophytes grow near the ground (haploid stage) viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

2) Through water, sperm from the male gametophyte will swim to the female gametophyte to create a diploid zygote

3) Diploid sporophyte will grow from zygote

4) Sporophyte will create and release haploid spores

.

.

.

.

.

sporophyte

egg

zygote

zygote

egg

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

male

male

gametophyte

female

female

female

male

female

male


5) Haploid spores land and grow into new gametophytes viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

6) The process repeats

.

.

.

.

.

ground

gametophyte


. viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

.

.

.

.

sporophyte

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

male

male

gametophyte

female

female

female

male

female

male


Group 2 seedless vascular plants
Group 2: Seedless, Vascular Plants viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Vascular system allows nutrient transport to greater heights

Live in moist environments to reproduce

Club mosses

Horsetails

Ferns


Group 2 seedless vascular plants1
Group 2: Seedless, Vascular Plants viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Ferns

Vascular: allows taller growth

Haploid spores (meiosis) on underside of fronds

Spores grow into gametophyte

Sperm & egg create a zygote


Fern life cycle
Fern Life Cycle viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.


1) Sporophyte creates and releases haploid spores viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

.

.

.

.

Adult

Sporophyte (diploid)

ground


2) Haploid spores land in the soil viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

.

.

.

.

ground


3) From the haploid spores, gametophyte grows in the soil viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

Let’s zoom in

ground


4) Sperm swim through water from the male parts (antheridium) to the female parts (archegonia)

Let’s zoom back out

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote


5) Diploid sporophyte grows from the zygote (antheridium) to the female parts (archegonia)

sporophyte

ground


6) Fronds uncurls into leaves. (antheridium) to the female parts (archegonia)

7) Cycle repeats

-- Haploid spores created and released

.

.

.

.

ground


Haploid spores land in the soil (antheridium) to the female parts (archegonia)

.

.

.

.

ground


From the haploid spores, gametophyte grows in the soil (antheridium) to the female parts (archegonia)

Let’s zoom in

ground


Sperm swim through water from the male parts (antheridium) to the female parts (archegonia)

Let’s zoom back out

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote


Diploid sporophyte grows from the zygote to the female parts (archegonia)

sporophyte

ground


Fronds uncurls into leaves. to the female parts (archegonia)

Cycle repeats

.

.

.

.

ground


Seeds and their advantages
Seeds and their advantages to the female parts (archegonia)

1) Seed plants don’t depend on water to reproduce

Pollen (contains sperm) combines with egg

Egg hardens into a seed

2) Nourishment and protection

Nourish: Nutrients inside seed for the embryo

Protection: Hard shell

3) Allow dispersal

Carried by wind, water, animals


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants
Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants to the female parts (archegonia)

Type 1: Gymnosperms

Seeds not enclosed in a fruit

produced inside cones

Cone = reproductive structure

Male cones: produce pollen

Female cones: produce eggs and seeds


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants1
Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants to the female parts (archegonia)

Gymosperm example: Conifers

Cone plants

Needle-like leaves

Common to lumber industry

Evergreen, Pine, Redwood, Cedar


Conifer life cycle
Conifer Life Cycle to the female parts (archegonia)



2) Pollen grains released from the male seed cones to the female parts (archegonia) -- Pollen is the male gametophyte

Male cones make pollen

Female cones make eggs

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote


seed to the female parts (archegonia)

seed

seed

seed

3) Seeds begin to harden inside the female cones


4) Seeds released to the female parts (archegonia)


5) Seed will land to the female parts (archegonia)

ground


6) Seedling grows into (sporophyte)…the cycle repeats to the female parts (archegonia)

ground



Male cones make pollen to the female parts (archegonia)

Female cones make eggs

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote


seed to the female parts (archegonia)

seed

seed

seed

3) Seeds begin to harden inside the female cones


4) Seeds released to the female parts (archegonia)


5) Seed will land to the female parts (archegonia)

ground


6) Seedling grows into (sporophyte)…the cycle repeats to the female parts (archegonia)

ground


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants2
Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants to the female parts (archegonia)

Type 2: Angiosperms (flowering plants)

Flower = reproductive structure

Protects gamete and fertilized eggs

Seeds enclosed in a fruit

Fruit: Plant ovary

Often attract animals to disperse the seeds inside


Fruit production
Fruit Production to the female parts (archegonia)

  • In the seed

    • Embryo

    • Food supply

  • Surrounding ovary grows into a fruit

  • Fruit attracts animals to eat and spread the seeds

Fruit seeds in fox droppings


Angiosperm types flowering plants
Angiosperm types to the female parts (archegonia)(flowering plants)

2 groups: Monocots and Dicots (based on seed type)

Cotyledon: embryonic leaf

Monocots: embryo with 1 seed leaf

Dicots: embryo with 2 seed leaves


Angiosperm life spans
Angiosperm Life Spans to the female parts (archegonia)

  • Three Life Span Types:

  • Annuals

    • 1 year: Mature…produce seeds…die

  • Biennials

    • 1st year: produces short stem, low growth leaves, food reserves

    • 2nd year: taller stem, leaves, flowers, seeds

  • Perennials

    • Live for more than 2 years


Flowers
Flowers to the female parts (archegonia)

  • Reproductive structure of flowering plants

  • Sepals

    • outer ring of leaves

    • protection

  • Petals

    • Inner ring of leaves

    • Brightly colored to attract pollinators

  • Open petals & sepals reveal male and female structures


Flowers1
Flowers to the female parts (archegonia)

  • Female Carpel

    • Inner most part

    • Ovary: within the base (female gametophyte)

    • Stigma: sticky tip, collects pollen

  • Male Stamen

    • Surrounds carpel

    • Anther: produces pollen (male gametophyte)


Angiosperm life cycle
Angiosperm Life Cycle to the female parts (archegonia)


Pollen stick to animal or released into wind to the female parts (archegonia)


Animal finds a new flower to feed on to the female parts (archegonia)


Pollen transferred to the stigma….seeds develop to the female parts (archegonia)

egg

zygote


Flower petals start to fall off and dies to the female parts (archegonia)

zygote


Fruit falls to ground to the female parts (archegonia)






Flower dies repeats

zygote





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