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Topic 1: Classification. Classification History. Taxonomy : Branch of biology that groups all life according to their characteristics and history All life on earth is placed into 1 of 6 kingdoms: Eubacteria Archaea Protista Fungi Plants Animals. Carolus Linnaeus.

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slide2

Classification

History

  • Taxonomy: Branch of biology that groups all life according to their characteristics and history
  • All life on earth is placed into 1 of 6 kingdoms:
    • Eubacteria
    • Archaea
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Plants
    • Animals
slide3

Carolus

Linnaeus

  • Developed classification system based on physical features
  • Binomial Nomenclature: System of giving every organism 2 names
    • 1st word: Genus (broad)
    • 2nd word: Species (specific)
  • Example: House cat
    • Genus: Felis (cougars, lions, tigers, cheetahs, etc…)
    • Species: catus
slide4

Binomial Format

  • When Writing:
    • Genus capitalized
    • species lowercase
    • Underlined entirely

Ex: Homo sapiens

  • When Typing:
    • Same, except use italics

Ex: Homo sapiens

Bos taurus

slide5

Taxa

  • 7 individual levels (taxa) used to classify organisms

Kingdom (broadest)

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species (specific)

  • Allows relationships to be clearly seen
slide7

How is Life Classified Today?

  • Taxonomy: grouping life according to shared traits (not just physical)
  • 1) Morphology: studying the form and structure of organisms
    • Comparing the morphology (traits) of different species shows similarities and/or differences

Mammals

slide9

2) Biochemical Evidence

  • Comparing DNA, amino acids, & proteins
  • DNA mutations occur at known rates
    • Splits in evolution can be estimated based on how different DNA between 2 organisms is
    • More different the DNA…longer ago common ancestor
slide10

3) Embryo Development

  • Patters of development studied to identify relatedness
  • Blastopore (1st opening of embryo) shows humans & starfish are more related than humans & squid

Mouth

Anus

Anus

slide11

Phylogeny

all have amniotic eggs

  • Defined: Evolutionary history of an organism
  • Shown by cladograms
    • Group life according to similarities

How many traits does a primate & amphibian share?

Which organisms do not have amniotic eggs?

slide12
1) What does an amphibian & crocodile have in common?

Vertebrae, Bony skeleton, Four limbs

  • 2) List the traits of a ray-finned fish.

Doesn’t have 4 limbs, has bony skeleton, has vertebrae

slide13
Virus: A biological particle composed of nucleic acid and protein

Intracellular Parasites: organism that must “live” inside a host

Topic 2: Viruses

slide14
Reproduce

Have nucleic acid

Adapt to surroundings

Have organization

Not made of cells or organelles

Can’t reproduce on own

Don’t metabolize energy

Don’t perform cellular processes

Are viruses alive?

No

Yes

slide15
All Have:

1) Capsid: coat of protein that surrounds nucleic acid

2) Nucleic Acid: RNA or DNA

Some Have:

Tail Fibers: Used for attachment (not legs)

Shapes vary

Virus

Parts

slide16
1st Step: Attachment

Virus attaches to a cell receptor

No attachment = No infection

The Lytic Cycle

slide17
2nd Step: Entry

Virus enzyme weakens cell membrane

Genetic material (DNA or RNA) enters host cell

The Lytic Cycle

slide18
3rd Step: Replication

Virus DNA/RNA makes virus proteins by transcription/ translation

The Lytic Cycle

slide19
4th Step: Assembly

New virus proteins are assembled into new viruses

The Lytic Cycle

slide20
5th Step: Release

Virus enzyme causes host to burst

Viruses are released to find new host…Cycle repeats

The Lytic Cycle

slide21

The Lysogenic Cycle

1) Attachment: Virus attaches to host cell

Host cell DNA

Pro-phage

2) Entry: Virus nucleic acid enter the cell, but combines with host cell DNA.

slide22

The host cell divides by mitosis, making a copy of the prophage each time.

Pro-phage

Pro-phage

Pro-phage

Two infected cells.

slide25

Virus DNA eventually becomes active and starts to create viruses following the stages of the lytic cycle.

All infected cells burst, releasing many more viruses to restart the cycle.

slide27
Prokaryote

Cells w/o nucleus & membrane bound organelles

Chromosome & plasmids float freely in cytoplasm

Ribosomes

create proteins

Flagella

used in movement

Pili

act as anchors

Connect to other cell during conjugation

Endospore

“cocoon” to protect DNA in harsh times

Cell Structure

slide28
Many bacteria grow in colonies

3 Basic Shapes:

1) Rod

2) Spherical

3) Spiral

Bacterial Shapes

bacteria asexual reproduction
Bacteria Asexual Reproduction

Binary Fission: asexual reproduction where one cell splits into two cells

Both cells have identical sets of DNA

Less genetic diversity

Click pic

bacteria sexual reproduction
Bacteria Sexual Reproduction

Conjugation: process where DNA is exchanged between bacteria cells

Cells connect by pili

DNA duplicated and then exchanged

Creates genetic diversity

Gene to resist ampicillin

Gene to resist ampicillin

slide31
Anaerobic

Obligate anaerobic = cannot live in oxygen

Aerobic

Facultative aerobic = can live with or without oxygen

Obligate aerobic = must live in oxygen

Respiration

The bacteria that causes TB lives in your lungs…which type is it?

identifying bacteria with gram staining
Identifying Bacteria with Gram Staining

Gram negative:

stains pink

extra outer layer

harder to treat

  • Gram positive:
      • stains purple
      • lack extra covering
      • easier to treat
slide34

Brush,

Floss,

& Rinse

Your

Teeth!

GINGIVITIS

HEALTHY

MODERATE PERIODONTITIS

ADVANCED PERIODONTITIS

slide35

Antibiotic Resistance

  • Problem: Bacteria are adapting to live with the antibiotics
  • Causes:
    • 1) Using antibiotics on viruses or without prescription
    • 2) Not completing prescription
    • 3) Overuse on farm animals
  • Importance: Bacteria infections harder to treat
slide36

Most bacteria killed

Strong Survive

Resistant Bacteria Only

Strong Reproduce

protista in general
Protista in General
  • Usually unicellular
  • Reproduction:
    • Asexual, Sexual, Both
  • Kingdom for life that doesn’t fit in animals, plant or fungi kingdom
  • Mostly aquatic life
  • 3 main categories based on feeding
    • Animal-like
    • Plant-like
    • Protista-like
animal like protista protozoans
Animal-Like Protista (Protozoans)
  • Aquatic, unicellular
  • Heterotrophic
    • Feed & ingest prey
    • pathogens, parasites, predators
    • 3 subcategories based on how they move
  • 1) Pseudopods : have pseudopodia (false- feet)
    • Engulf by phagocytosis
  • 2) Flagellates: have flagella
  • 3) Ciliates: have cilia
pseudopod video clips
Pseudopod Video Clips

File title: Amoeba2

File title: Amoeba4

ciliates video clip
Ciliates Video Clip

File title: Paramecia2

File title: Rotifer2

flagelletes video clip
Flagelletes Video Clip

File title: Euglena2

File title: Euglena

animal like protista disease
Animal-Like Protista & Disease
  • Malaria: Infected mosquito bites
    • Fever, vomiting, coma, death
  • Sleeping sickness: bite of tsetse flies
    • Coma & death
plantlike protista
Plantlike Protista
  • AKA: Algae
  • Perform photosynthesis with chloroplasts
    • Provide ~ ½ the O2 on earth
    • Most unicellular
    • Phytoplankton: basis of aquatic food chains (producers)
  • Few multicellular
    • Seaweed, kelp
  • Why not plants?
    • No true leaves, stems, or roots
    • most unicellular
fungus like protista
Fungus-like Protista
  • Heterotrophs
    • Decomposers: recycle nutrients
    • Absorb nutrients
  • Moist environments
  • Slime Molds: large (~1 meter) single celled mass of cytoplasm
  • Water molds: can be parasitic
    • Potato blight: disease & the Irish potato famine
fungi structure basics
Fungi Structure & Basics

Hyphae: thin strands of cells that make up the fungus body

Hyphae spread into a larger mass (mycelium)

Fruiting body: Above-ground reproductive structure

Cell wall of chiton (common to animals)

Heterotrophs: hyphae release enzymes to absorb nutrients

Classification determined by sexual reproduction methods

strands of hyphae

zygote fungi
Zygote Fungi

Bread Molds

Some help “fix” nitrogen in atmosphere

Asexual Reproduction

Sporangia produce spores

Spores can grow into new hyphae when released

.

.

.

slide50

Haploid spores land

Hyphae grow into a mat of mycelium

Sporangia grow from the mycelium

.

Sporangia release spores

.

.

.

ground

zygote fungi1
Zygote Fungi

Sexual reproduction

Hyphae from 2 organisms fuse and form a diploid zygospore

Zygospore grows new hyphae when released

slide53

Spores land

Hyphae grow into a mat of mycelium

.

.

ground

slide54

Hyphae of fungi grow together

Diploid zygospore is created

New diploid hyphae grow from the zygospore

Hyphae of fungus #1

Hyphae of fungus #2

slide55

Hyphae grow into a mat of mycelium….

Sporangia grow from the mycelium

Sporangia release spores

.

.

.

ground

slide57

Hyphae of fungus #1

Hyphae of fungus #2

slide58

.

.

.

ground

club fungi
Club Fungi

Basidia: club-like structure that produces sexual spores (located in gills underneath)

Hyphae of two individuals grow into mycelium

Fruiting body created to make spores

slide61

Spores will land

Fungus #1 mycelium grows underground….Fungus #2 mycelium grows underground

Two fungi grow together and fuse

.

Diploid fruiting body grows from the mass

.

Haploid spores created & released from the underside of the fruiting body

.

.

.

.

.

ground

slide62

Spores will land

New hyphae will grow into a new mycelium

Cycle repeats

.

.

ground

sac fungi
Sac Fungi

Ascus: sac that contain spores during sexual reproduction

Two hyphae grow together to create fruiting body

Spores released

Ex: Yeast, morals, truffles

slide64

Spores will land

Fungus #1 mycelium grows underground….Fungus #2 mycelium grows underground

Two fungi grow together and fuse

.

Diploid fruiting body grows from the mass

.

Haploid spores created & released from the ascus

ground

slide65

Spores will land

New hyphae will grow into a new mycelium

Cycle repeats

.

.

ground

lichens
Lichens

Fungus + blue-green bacteria or green algae

Mycelium of fungi surrounds the green organism

Grow on rocks (pioneer species), soil, trees

Mutualistic relationship

Algae/bacteria: obtains warmth, substrate to grow in

Fungus: obtains food

Food source & help create soil during succession

plant evolution
Plant Evolution

Evolved from green algae (450 mya)

Green algae ancestor

Multicellular body

Cells w/ channels to communicate

Reproduce w/ sperm & egg

Early plants

Low growth (nonvascular)

land adaptations
Land Adaptations

Retain Moisture

Early plants grew near waters edge

Cuticle: waxy coating

land adaptations1
Land Adaptations

Transporting Resources

Vascular system: tissue to transport nutrients

Up from the roots (ex: water)

Down from the leaves (ex: sugars)

Allows taller growth

land adaptations2
Land Adaptations

Growing upright

Large plants need to support own weight

Lignin: hardens cell wall; gives wood strength

land adaptations3
Land Adaptations

Reproduction on land

Pollen: carried by wind/animals

Seeds: hard coat protects embryo inside

alternation of generations in general
Alternation of generations (In general)

Diploid zygote created

Diploid zygote grows into a diploid sporophyte

Haploid spores created by meiosis

Haploid spores grow into haploid gametophytes

Male gametophyte creates haploid sperm

Female gametophyte creates haploid egg

Sperm and egg fuse to make a diploid zygote

Cycle restarts

group 1 seedless nonvascular plants
Group 1: Seedless, Nonvascular Plants

Live in moist environments to reproduce

Liverworts

Hornworts

Mosses

group 1 seedless nonvascular plants1
Group 1: Seedless, Nonvascular Plants

Mosses

Grow low to ground to retain moisture (nonvascular)

Lack true leaves

Common pioneer species during succession

Gametophyte most common (dominant)

slide77

1)Moss gametophytes grow near the ground (haploid stage)

2) Through water, sperm from the male gametophyte will swim to the female gametophyte to create a diploid zygote

3) Diploid sporophyte will grow from zygote

4) Sporophyte will create and release haploid spores

.

.

.

.

.

sporophyte

egg

zygote

zygote

egg

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

male

male

gametophyte

female

female

female

male

female

male

slide78

5) Haploid spores land and grow into new gametophytes

6) The process repeats

.

.

.

.

.

ground

gametophyte

slide79

.

.

.

.

.

sporophyte

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

male

male

gametophyte

female

female

female

male

female

male

group 2 seedless vascular plants
Group 2: Seedless, Vascular Plants

Vascular system allows nutrient transport to greater heights

Live in moist environments to reproduce

Club mosses

Horsetails

Ferns

group 2 seedless vascular plants1
Group 2: Seedless, Vascular Plants

Ferns

Vascular: allows taller growth

Haploid spores (meiosis) on underside of fronds

Spores grow into gametophyte

Sperm & egg create a zygote

slide83

1) Sporophyte creates and releases haploid spores

.

.

.

.

Adult

Sporophyte (diploid)

ground

slide86

4) Sperm swim through water from the male parts (antheridium) to the female parts (archegonia)

Let’s zoom back out

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

slide88

6) Fronds uncurls into leaves.

7) Cycle repeats

-- Haploid spores created and released

.

.

.

.

ground

slide91

Sperm swim through water from the male parts (antheridium) to the female parts (archegonia)

Let’s zoom back out

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

slide93

Fronds uncurls into leaves.

Cycle repeats

.

.

.

.

ground

seeds and their advantages
Seeds and their advantages

1) Seed plants don’t depend on water to reproduce

Pollen (contains sperm) combines with egg

Egg hardens into a seed

2) Nourishment and protection

Nourish: Nutrients inside seed for the embryo

Protection: Hard shell

3) Allow dispersal

Carried by wind, water, animals

group 3 seed producing vascular plants
Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants

Type 1: Gymnosperms

Seeds not enclosed in a fruit

produced inside cones

Cone = reproductive structure

Male cones: produce pollen

Female cones: produce eggs and seeds

group 3 seed producing vascular plants1
Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants

Gymosperm example: Conifers

Cone plants

Needle-like leaves

Common to lumber industry

Evergreen, Pine, Redwood, Cedar

slide99

2) Pollen grains released from the male seed cones -- Pollen is the male gametophyte

Male cones make pollen

Female cones make eggs

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

slide100

seed

seed

seed

seed

3) Seeds begin to harden inside the female cones

slide105

Male cones make pollen

Female cones make eggs

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

egg

zygote

slide106

seed

seed

seed

seed

3) Seeds begin to harden inside the female cones

group 3 seed producing vascular plants2
Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants

Type 2: Angiosperms (flowering plants)

Flower = reproductive structure

Protects gamete and fertilized eggs

Seeds enclosed in a fruit

Fruit: Plant ovary

Often attract animals to disperse the seeds inside

fruit production
Fruit Production
  • In the seed
    • Embryo
    • Food supply
  • Surrounding ovary grows into a fruit
  • Fruit attracts animals to eat and spread the seeds

Fruit seeds in fox droppings

angiosperm types flowering plants
Angiosperm types(flowering plants)

2 groups: Monocots and Dicots (based on seed type)

Cotyledon: embryonic leaf

Monocots: embryo with 1 seed leaf

Dicots: embryo with 2 seed leaves

angiosperm life spans
Angiosperm Life Spans
  • Three Life Span Types:
  • Annuals
    • 1 year: Mature…produce seeds…die
  • Biennials
    • 1st year: produces short stem, low growth leaves, food reserves
    • 2nd year: taller stem, leaves, flowers, seeds
  • Perennials
    • Live for more than 2 years
flowers
Flowers
  • Reproductive structure of flowering plants
  • Sepals
    • outer ring of leaves
    • protection
  • Petals
    • Inner ring of leaves
    • Brightly colored to attract pollinators
  • Open petals & sepals reveal male and female structures
flowers1
Flowers
  • Female Carpel
    • Inner most part
    • Ovary: within the base (female gametophyte)
    • Stigma: sticky tip, collects pollen
  • Male Stamen
    • Surrounds carpel
    • Anther: produces pollen (male gametophyte)
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