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Importance of Establishing Effective Database System. Laila M. Akhu-Zaheya RN, PHD Nursing Informatics Adult Health Department Faculty of Nursing/Jordan University of Science and Technology. Objectives. What is data? What is information? What is database? What is effective database?

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Importance of Establishing Effective Database System

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Importance of Establishing Effective Database System

Laila M. Akhu-Zaheya RN, PHD

Nursing Informatics

Adult Health Department

Faculty of Nursing/Jordan University of Science and Technology


  • What is data?

  • What is information?

  • What is database?

  • What is effective database?

  • What are the purposes of database?

  • Implication of database in nursing


  • Do certain approaches to pain management shorten hospital stays?

  • Is the incidence of preventable illness lower in children whose mothers received postpartum care?

  • Does hospitalization of patients whose diabetes is newly diagnosed prevent future hospitalization for diabetic complications?

What is data?

Data can be defined in different ways, depending on the context.

  • In information science data defined as raw facts, or unprocessed information

  • Need to be stored for easy retrieval

What is information?

  • Information is the processed data, has meaning

  • Should be organized in a useful and meaningful way to build our knowledge

  • knowledge would be useful to make decision

Purpose of database management system

Needs for database and database management system

What is Database

  • Data is the basic element of database

  • A very large integrated collection of data

  • Organized in a form that data would be retrievable either singly or in groups

  • It is simply creating information from data

  • Information is data that have been organized & communicated in a coherent and meaningful manner

Example of database

Touch all aspects of our lives; as:

  • Banking: all transactions

  • Airlines: reservations, schedules

  • Manufacturing: production, inventory, orders, supply

  • Universities: registration, grades

  • Computer: files in your hard drive

  • Human resources: employee records, salaries, tax deductions

What is effective database

When you think about a database, keep in mind the

  • The questions that the data needs to answer

  • The data needed to answer the questions

  • Remember: garbage in (GI)– garbage out (GO)

Database management system

Keep in mind the following questions:

  • How many records we will warehouse and for how long?

  • Who will be using the database and what tasks will they perform?

  • Who will be providing IT support for the database?

  • What hardware is available?  Is there a budget for purchasing additional hardware?

Database management system, continue,….

  • Who will be responsible for maintaining the data?

  • Will data access be offered over the Internet?  If so, what level of access should be supported?

  • How often will the data be modified?  Who will make these modifications?

Why do we need database?

  • Database is the foundation of all health care information system

  • Provides information that can be retrieve, used in research, and clinical practice

  • Keep records of our:

    • Clients; Staff; Volunteers

    • Activities and interventions;

  • Develop reports; Perform research

  • Longitudinal tracking


  • It would overcome the problems of:

    • Data redundancy and inconsistency

      • Multiple file formats, duplication of information in different files

    • Difficulty in accessing data

      • Need to write a new program to carry out each new task

    • Data isolation — multiple files and formats

    • Integrity problems

      • Hard to add new constraints or change existing ones

Overview of database

  • Certain terminology used for database

    • Data: Facts without meaning, e.g., the number 37

    • Field (attribute): smallest structure in database

    • Field name: label applied to a field

    • Record: all information about a single member of a table

    • Table: A collection of related information . A table consists of record and each record is made up of a number of field.

Type of Database

  • Non-relational

    Place information in field categories that we create so that information is available for sorting and disseminating the way we need it. Example: a spreadsheet

  • Relational

    Fields can be used in a number of ways (and can be of variable length), provided that they are linked in tables.


  • It is not only important to develop database but also to know how to use the database:

  • Training is important

Implications & challenges

  • Direct patient care

  • Education

  • Research

  • Administration

In Jordan

Thank You

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