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ISTORY OF ENGLISH. LECTURE 2 Old English: language (I). Lei ZHU Shanghai International Studies University. 1 History and dialects: a panorama. c500 BC Arrival of Celtic speakers. Pictish. Scottish. Brito-Welsh. 1 History and dialects: a panorama. c500 BC Arrival of Celtic speakers

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Lecture 2 old english language i

ISTORY OF ENGLISH

LECTURE 2Old English:language (I)

Lei ZHU

Shanghai International Studies University


1 history and dialects a panorama
1 History and dialects: a panorama

c500 BC Arrival of Celtic speakers


Pictish

Scottish

Brito-Welsh


1 history and dialects a panorama1
1 History and dialects: a panorama

c500 BC Arrival of Celtic speakers

c 45–c410 Britain becomes part of the Roman Empire, forming the Roman colony ‘Britannia’.

c 410 Collapse of Roman Empire; Romans leave Britain.


Pictish

Scottish

Brito-Welsh

Latin


1 history and dialects a panorama2
1 History and dialects: a panorama

c500 BC Arrival of Celtic speakers

c 45–c410 Britain becomes part of the Roman Empire, forming the Roman colony ‘Britannia’.

c 410 Collapse of Roman Empire; Romans leave Britain.

449 Traditional date for the invasion of Britain by the Angles, Saxons, and

Jutes. (Teutonic Conquest)



1 history and dialects a panorama4
1 History and dialects: a panorama

Pictish

Scottish

Brito-Welsh

Latin


Kentish

West Saxon

Northumbrian

Anglian

Mercian

Old English dialects


1 history and dialects a panorama5
1 History and dialects: a panorama

After the Teutonic Conquest

597 Arrival of Roman mission in England and introduction of Christianity.


601 Augustine becomes the first Archbishop of Canterbury

c700-20 Lindisfarne Gospels written in Latin

731 Bede completes his Ecclesiastical History of the English People in Latin

Re-entry of Latin


1 history and dialects a panorama6
1 History and dialects: a panorama

After the Teutonic Conquest

597 Arrival of Roman mission in England and introduction of Christianity.

780s Period of Scandinavian invasion begins.

870s Scandinavian settlement in England.



1 history and dialects a panorama7
1 History and dialects: a panorama

After the Teutonic Conquest

597 Arrival of Roman mission in England and introduction of Christianity.

780s Period of Scandinavian invasion begins.

870s Scandinavian settlement in England.

871–899 Reign of Alfred (849-901) as King of Wessex.

878 Battle of Edington, in which Alfred triumphs over Vikings and agrees on areas of Scandinavian settlement (later to be known as the ‘Danelaw’).


871-99 Translations of, e.g. Bede’s Ecclesiastical History, Boethius’s Consolation of Philosophy, Gregory’s Pastoral Care

c890-1154 The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

c1000 Copying of Beowulf (written c700)

Ælfric (c955-c1020)

Wulfstan (?-1023)

Revival of Old English


1 history and dialects a panorama8
1 History and dialects: a panorama

After the Teutonic Conquest

597 Arrival of Roman mission in England and introduction of Christianity.

780s Period of Scandinavian invasion begins.

870s Scandinavian settlement in England.

871(–99) Reign of Alfred as King of Wessex.

878 Battle of Edington, in which Alfred triumphs over Vikings and agrees on areas of Scandinavian settlement (later to be known as the ‘Danelaw’).

1066 Battle of Hastings; William I (the Conqueror) reigns over England (until 1087).


1 history and dialects a panorama9
1 History and dialects: a panorama

Celtic

Latin

Scandinavian

(Old Norse)

Kentish

West Saxon

Northumbrian

Anglian

Mercian

OE




半安色尔体

海岛体


Vowels 元音: Monophthongs单元音

Manuscript Modern IPA examples printing


Vowels 元音: Diphthongs双元音

Manuscript Modern IPA examples printing


Consonants辅音: Plosives爆破音 and affricates塞擦音

Manuscript Modern IPA examples printing

V+g+V

g+i/e;

i/e/æ+g

c+i/e;

i/e/æ+c


Consonants辅音: Fricatives擦音

Manuscript Modern IPA examples printing

V+f+V

V+s+V

V+þ/ð+V

a/o/u/æ+h

i/e/y+h


Consonants辅音: Nasals鼻音, liquids流音 and semi-vowels半元音

Manuscript Modern IPA examples printing

Abbreviations简写形式

and/ond (and)

þæt (that)

þer (there)

omission of m or n


3 grammar
3 Grammar

The Old English Hexateuch

(London, British Library, MS. Cotton Claudius B. iv)



Adam ða cwæð∙ þis is nu ban of

minum banum∙ & flæsc of minum flæsce∙ beo heo ge

ciged fæmne∙ for ðan ðe heo is of hyre were genumen.


Ādam ðā cwæð: “þis is nū bān of mīnum bānum, & flǣsċ

Nom.sg. Nom.sg. Nom.sg. Dat.pl. Nom.sg.

of mīnum flǣsċe. Bēo hēo ġeċīġed fǣmne, for ðan ðe

Dat.sg. Nom.sg. Nom.sg.

hēo is of hyre were ġenumen.”

Nom.sg. Gen.sg. Dat.sg.

sg. pl.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Dat.

Ādam

þis

bān bānum

flǣsċ flǣsċe

mīnum mīnum

hēo hyre

were

And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh

of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because

she was taken out of Man.


3 grammar2
3 Grammar flǣsċ

Declension of nouns

m.

n.

f.

‘stone’

‘ship’

‘tale’

n-declension (weak declension)

mutation declension

‘foot’

‘man’


3 grammar3
3 Grammar flǣsċ

Declension of adjectives

‘blind’

indefinite

definite


3 grammar4
3 Grammar flǣsċ

Declension of demonstratives

Instr.

þӯ

þӯ


3 grammar5
3 Grammar flǣsċ

Declension of interrogative and indefinite pronouns

m./f. n.

Nom. hwā hwæt

Acc. hwone, hwæne hwæt

Gen. hwæs hwæs

Dat. hwǣm, hwām hwǣm, hwām

Instr. hwī, hwon hwī, hwon, hwan


3 grammar6
3 Grammar flǣsċ

Declension of personal pronouns


Ādam ðā cwæð: “þis is nū bān of mīnum bānum, & flǣsċ

preterite3sg. present3sg.

(ġe)cweþan bēon

of mīnum flǣsċe. Bēo hēo ġeċīġed fǣmne, for ðan ðe

future3sg. past participle

bēon (ġe)ċīeġan

hēo is of hyre were ġenumen.”

present3sg. past participle

bēon (ġe)niman

And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh

of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because

she was taken out of Man.


3 grammar7
3 Grammar flǣsċ

Conjugation of verbs

Indicative Subjunctive Imperative Participle Infinitive

Pres. Pret.

Pres. Pret.

Pres.

Pres. Pret.

Simple Inflected

I

II

III

Weak

verbs

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

Strong

verbs


3 grammar8
3 Grammar flǣsċ

Weak verbs

lufian ‘love’


3 grammar9
3 Grammar flǣsċ

Weak verbs

dēman ‘deem’


3 grammar10
3 Grammar flǣsċ

Weak verbs

habban ‘have’


3 grammar11
3 Grammar flǣsċ

Strong verbs

drīfan ‘drive’


3 grammar12
3 Grammar flǣsċ

Strong verbs: the seven classes


3 grammar13
3 Grammar flǣsċ

Bēon-wesan ‘be’

Present. Preterite

Indicative

Sg.1 eom bēo wæs

2 eart bist wǣre

3 is biþ wæs

Pl. sind(on), sint bēoþ wǣron

Subjunctive

Sg. sīe bēo wǣre

Pl. sīen bēon wǣren

Imperative

Sg. wes bēo

Pl. wesaþ bēoþ

Participle

wesende bēonde ġebēon


Ādam ðā cwæð: “þis is nū bān of mīnum bānum, & flǣsċ

then now and

of mīnum flǣsċe. Bēo hēo ġeċīġed fǣmne, for ðan ðe

because

hēo is of hyre were ġenumen.”

And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh

of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because

she was taken out of Man.


3 grammar14
3 Grammar flǣsċ


3 grammar15
3 Grammar flǣsċ


3 grammar16
3 Grammar flǣsċ

Gloss and translate the passage!

For ðan forlǣt se man fæder & mōdor, & ġeðēot hine

to his wīfe, & hī bēoð būta on ānum flǣsce. Hī wǣron ðā

būta ādam & his wīf nacode. & him ðæs ne sċeamode.

forlǣt: (he/she/it) leaves

ġeðēot: (he/she/it) joins

būta: both n.

nacode: naked n.pl.

sċeamode: (it) caused shame


3 grammar17
3 Grammar flǣsċ

For ðan forlǣt se man fæder & mōdor, & ġeðēot hine

therefore leaves the man father and mother and joins him(self)

Ind.pres.3sg. Nom.sg.m. Acc.sg.m. Acc.sg.f. Ind.pres.3sg. Acc.sg.m.

to his wīfe, & hī bēoð būta on ānum flǣsce. Hī wǣron ðā

to his wife and they shall-be both in one flesh they were then

Dat.sg.n. Nom.pl.Ind.fut.3pl.Nom.n. Dat.sg.n. Dat.sg.n. Nom.pl.Ind.pt.3pl.

būta ādam & his wīf nacode. & him ðæs ne sceamode.

both Adam and his wife naked and to-them of-that not caused-shame

Nom.n. Nom.sg.m. Nom.sg.n.Nom.pl.n. Dat.pl. Gen.sg. Ind.pt.3sg.


3 grammar18
3 Grammar flǣsċ

For ðan forlǣt se man fæder & mōdor, & ġeðēot hine

to his wīfe, & hī bēoð būta on ānum flǣsce. Hī wǣron ðā

būta ādam & his wīf nacode. & him ðæs ne sceamode.

Therefore shall the man leave his father and mother, and shall join himself with his wife, and they shall be both in one flesh. They were then, both Adam and his wife, naked. And to them there was no shame of it.

Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. (KJV=King James Version)


4 reading practice i
4 Reading practice (I) flǣsċ

Peterborough Chronicle for AD 595

(The first sentence is in Latin.)


4 reading practice i1
4 Reading practice (I) flǣsċ

Vocabulary

brytene Britain

engla Angles

godes god’s

godspellodon gospelled (=preached)

gregorius Gregory

her here; in this year

manengum many (scribal mis-spelling)

mid with

munucum monks

papa Pope

sende sent

þe who (relative pronoun)

þeoda nation, people

wel well (=very)

word word


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