Feeding young horses
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Feeding Young Horses. Goal: Rapid growth with as few developmental and health problems as possible. Feeding Young Horses. Energy Protein-Amino acids – Lysine Minerals Macro – Ca, P Micro – Cu, Zn. Reaching Mature Size. First year most critical 90% of height, 65% of weight See table

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Feeding Young Horses

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Feeding young horses

Feeding Young Horses

  • Goal: Rapid growth with as few developmental and health problems as possible


Feeding young horses1

Feeding Young Horses

  • Energy

  • Protein-Amino acids – Lysine

  • Minerals

    • Macro – Ca, P

    • Micro – Cu, Zn


Reaching mature size

Reaching Mature Size

  • First year most critical

    • 90% of height, 65% of weight

    • See table

  • At moderate rate of growth:

    • Mature height = 2 to 3 y

    • Mature weight = 3 to 5 y


Size as a of mature size

Size as a % of Mature Size


Protein energy for young horses

Protein & Energy for Young Horses

  • Weanlings

    • ADG = 1.4 to 1.9 lb

    • 2.8 to 2.9% total DMI


Protein energy for young horses1

Protein & Energy for Young Horses

  • Yearlings

    • More moderate gains

    • ADG = 0.75 to 1.25 lb

    • After 1 yr, colts have 0.2 to 0.3 lb greater ADG than fillies


Protein energy for young horses2

Protein & Energy for Young Horses

  • Two-year-olds

    • ADG = 0.25 lb (100 lb/year)

    • (May need more if in training)


Energy requirements growing horses

Energy Requirements – Growing Horses

  • DEmaintenance + DEgain

  • DEm (kcal/kg BW/d) = 56.5X-0.145

    • X = age in months


Energy requirements growing horses1

Energy Requirements – Growing Horses

  • DEmaintenance + DEgain

  • DEg (Mcal) = (1.99 + 1.21X – 0.021X2) x ADG

    • X = age in months

    • ADG = kg/day


Energy requirements growing horses2

Energy Requirements – Growing Horses

  • Weanling, 227 kg, 0.75 kg ADG, 4 mo

  • DEm

  • DEm (kcal/kg BW/d) = 56.5(4-0.145)

    • 56.5 x 0.8179 = 46 kcal/kg BW

    • 46 kcal/kg x 227 kg = 10,442 kcal

    • Or 10.4 Mcal DE


Energy requirements growing horses3

Energy Requirements – Growing Horses

  • DEgain

  • DEg (Mcal) = (1.99 + 1.21X – 0.021X2) x ADG

  • [1.99 + (1.21 x 4) – (0.021 x 16)] x 0.75

  • 6.49 x 0.75 = 4.9 Mcal DE


Energy requirements growing horses4

Energy Requirements – Growing Horses

  • DEmaintenance + DEgain

  • 10.4 Mcal + 4.9 Mcal = 15.3 Mcal DE


Protein requirements

Protein Requirements


Protein requirements1

Protein Requirements


Protein requirements2

Protein Requirements

NRC, Lys:DE = 2

L.H. Breuer, 1998; Advances in Equine Nutrition I, KER


Cp lys requirements maintenance

CP/Lys Requirements – Maintenance

  • Minimum: CP (g/d) = BW kg x 1.08

  • Average: CP (g/d) = BW kg x 1.26

  • Elevated: CP (g/d) = BW kg x 1.44

  • Lysine (g/d) = CP (g/d) x 4.3%


Cp lys requirements maintenance1

CP/Lys Requirements – Maintenance

  • Total CP requirement = CPm + CPg

  • Growing horses:

    • CPm (g/d) = BW kg x 1.44


Cp lys requirements growth

CP/Lys Requirements – Growth

  • CP (g/d) = (BW kg x 1.44) + ((ADG g x 0.20)/E)/0.79

  • E = efficiency of protein use

Protein in

gain

Protein digestibility


Cp lys requirements growth1

CP/Lys Requirements – Growth

  • E = efficiency of protein use

    • 50% for 4-6 mo old

    • 45% for 7-8 mo old

    • 40% for 9-10 mo old

    • 35% for 11 mo old

    • 30% for 12 mo old or older


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