Chapter 6 civil war and reconstruction
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Chapter 6 Civil War and Reconstruction. # 3 Reconstruction. Essential Question : What were the various plans to reconstruct the Union at the end of the Civil War? Warm-Up Question: What problems exist now that the Civil War is over?. Reconstruction ( 1865 to 1877) .

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Chapter 6 Civil War and Reconstruction

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Chapter 6 Civil War and Reconstruction

  • # 3 Reconstruction


  • Essential Question:

    • What were the various plans to reconstruct the Union at the end of the Civil War?

  • Warm-Up Question:

    • What problems exist now that the Civil War is over?


Reconstruction (1865 to 1877)

  • Reconstruction is the era after the Civil War when the U.S. gov’t:

    • Brought the seceded Southern states back into the Union

    • Ended slavery & tried to protect newly emancipated slaves

    • Rebuilt the nation after more than four years of fighting


Reconstruction: 1865-1877

  • Reconstruction occurred in 2 phases:

    • Presidential Reconstruction (1865-67) was lenient in order to allow Southern states to quickly rejoin the Union; It was initiated by President Lincoln but carried out by President Andrew Johnson


Reconstruction: 1865-1877

  • Reconstruction occurred in 2 phases:

    • Congressional Reconstruction (1867-77) was directed by Radical Republicans in Congress who wanted a stricter plan that protected the rights of former slaves & kept Confederate leaders from regaining power in the South


Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan

In his 2nd inaugural address, Lincoln promised a Reconstruction Plan for the Union with “malice towards none & charity for all”

  • Before the Civil War came to an end (& before his death), Lincoln proposed his Ten-Percent Plan

  • This plan was very lenient & allowed former Confederate states could re-enter the Union when:

    • 10% of its population swore an oath of loyalty to the USA

    • States ratified the 13th Amendment ending slavery


Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan

  • Radical Republicans in Congress rejected Lincoln’s plan because:

    • It did nothing to protect ex-slaves or to keep Confederate leaders from regaining power in the South

    • Wanted 50% of state populations to swear an oath of loyalty

  • When the Civil War ended & Lincoln was assassinated in 1865, there was no Reconstruction Plan in place


Presidential Reconstruction

  • When Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 VP Andrew Johnson tried to continue Lincoln’s policies:

    • His Presidential Reconstruction plan was lenient towards Southerners

    • States could come back into the USA once they ratified the 13th Amendment


Presidential Reconstruction

  • Johnson’s Reconstruction plan hoped to quickly re-unify the nation

  • But, this plan did not require strict regulations to protect former slaves

    • Southern states passed black codes to keep African-Americans from gaining land, jobs, voting rights, & protection under the law

    • Johnson pardoned 13,000 ex-Confederates


Presidential Reconstruction

  • Led by Thaddeus Stevens, many “radical” Republicans in Congress opposed Johnson’s plan & pushed for laws to protect African-Americans:

    • Created the Freedman’s Bureau

    • Pushed for the 14th Amendment


The Freedman’s Bureau

  • The Freedman’s Bureau was established in 1865 to offer assistance to former slaves & protect their new citizenship:

    • Provided emergency food, housing, medical supplies

    • Promised “40 acres & a mule”

    • Supervised labor contracts

    • Created new schools


The Role of Freedman’s Bureau Agents

Many former abolitionists moved South to help freedmen, called “carpetbaggers” by Southern Democrats


A Freedman’s Bureau School


Historically Black Colleges in the South

The emphasis on education led to the creation of black universities, such as Morehouse College in Atlanta


The 14th Amendment

  • Congress feared Johnson would allow violations of civil rights so it drafted the 14th Amendment:

    • Clarified the idea of citizenship to include former slaves

    • All citizens were entitled to equal protection under the law & cannot bedeprived of life, liberty, property without due process of law

    • Tennessee was the only Southern state to accept the amendment


Presidential Reconstruction

  • President Johnson opposed these new protections because he felt it would slow reconstruction:

    • Johnson vetoed the Freedman’s Bureau bill & encouraged Southern states to not support the 14th Amendment

    • This backfired when Republicans increased their control of Congress in the 1866 elections


  • With a dominance in Congress, moderate & “radical” Republicans took control & began “Congressional Reconstruction” in 1867:

    • Did not recognize the state gov’ts approved under Johnson’s Plan

    • Made Reconstruction more strict


Congressional Reconstruction

  • The Reconstruction Act of 1867 required that any Confederate state that wanted to re-enter the Union had to:

    • Ratify the 14th Amendment

    • Allow African-American men the right to vote in their states

    • Keep Confederate leaders from returning to power


Created 5 military districts to protect former slaves & to enforce reconstruction


Johnson’s Impeachment (1868)

  • President Johnson obstructed Congressional Reconstruction:

    • He fired military generals appointed by Congress to oversee Southern military zones

    • He violated a new law called the Tenure of Office Act when he tried to fire his Secretary of War who supported Congress’ plan


  • Radical Republicans used this as an opportunity to impeach the president

    • To impeach is to formally charge an elected official of wrongdoing

    • The House of Representatives voted 126-47 to impeach Johnson


After an 11 week trial, the Senate fell 1 vote short of removing the president from office

Johnson argued that removal could only occur due to “high crimes & misdemeanors” but no “crime” had been committed

But…Johnson did promise to enforce Reconstruction for the remainder of his term…& he did!


The Senate trial of Johnson’s impeachment was the hottest ticket in town


  • In 1868, Civil War hero Ulysses Grant won the presidency & worked with Congress to reconstruct the South:

    • By 1868, most Confederate states had been re-admitted to the Union under Congressional Reconstruction

    • Under Grant, the last would re-enter


Because of Congressional Reconstruction, African-American men in the South could vote for the first time


Re-Admission of the South


  • In 1870, the 15th Amendment gave black men the right to vote

    • Prohibited any state from denying men the right to vote due to race

    • But…the amendment said nothing about literacy tests, poll taxes, & property qualifications


Conclusions

  • As a result of Congressional Reconstruction (1867-1877):

    • All eleven Southern states were re-admitted into the Union

    • The 13th, 14th, & 15th Amendments provided protection & opportunity for African-Americans in the South

    • But, this was difficult to enforce & sustain as Democrats slowly took back control of Southern states


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