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BBI 2412 Writing for Academic Purposes. CLAUSES. What are clauses?. A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. e.g. The student yawned s v 2 types of clauses Independent and dependent clause. Independent Clause.

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What are clauses
What are clauses?

  • A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb.

    e.g. The studentyawned

    s v

  • 2 types of clauses

  • Independent and dependent clause.


Independent clause
Independent Clause

  • A clause that can stand by itself and still make sense. An independent clause could be its own sentence, but is often part of a larger structure, combined with other independent clauses and with dependent clauses.

  • It contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought.

    E.g.

    The volcano erupted.

    S V

  • Independent clause is often formed with a complement.

    E.g.

    Glaciers often leavebehind holes in the ground.

    S V complement


Independent clauses can be connected in a variety of ways:

  • By a comma and coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, and sometimes so).

  • By a semicolon, by itself

  • By a semicolon accompanied by a conjunctive adverb (such as however, moreover, nevertheless, as a result, consequently, etc.).

  • And, of course, independent clauses are often not connected by punctuation at all but are separated by a period.


Dependent clause
Dependent Clause

  • Begins with a subordinator. (pg 163)

  • Does not express complete thought, so it can not stand on its own.

  • a.k.a sentence fragments.

  • Is formed with subordinator, subject and verb.

    e.g.

    ….when the volcano erupted

    Subordinator s v


How to differentiate
How to differentiate?

  • Dependent clauses can be identified and classified according to their role in the sentence.

  • NOUN CLAUSES do anything that a noun can do. They can be:

  • Subjects

    What Turveydrop has forgotten about American politics could fill the entire library.

  • Objects

    President Johnson finally revealed what he had in mind for his congressional leaders.

  • Objects of prepositions.

    Sheila Thistlethwaite has written a marvelous book about how American politics and economic processes often run counter to common sense


  • ADVERB CLAUSEStend to tell us something about the sentence’s main verb: when, why, under what conditions.

  • After Jubal Early invaded the outskirts of Washington, Congressional leaders took the southern threat more seriously

  • Lincoln insisted on attending the theater that night because it was important to demonstrate domestic tranquility

    * Notice how the dependent clauses begin with “dependent words,” words that subordinate what follows to the rest of the sentence. These words are also called subordinating conjunctions.

  • Refer to text book (pg 163)


  • ADJECTIVE CLAUSESmodify nouns or pronouns in the rest of the sentence.

    e.g. The Internet, which started out as a means for military and academic types to share documents, has become a household necessity.

  • Sometimes an adjective clause has no subject other than the relative pronoun that introduces the clauses.

    e.g. The Internet was started in 1969 under a contract let by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) which connected four major computers at universities in the southwestern US (UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, UCSB, and the University of Utah).

    * Such clauses — all beginning with “which,” “that,” or a form of “who” — are also known as RELATIVE CLAUSES. The relative pronoun serves as the subject of the dependent clause and relates to some word or idea in the independent clause


Fragments

Run-on sentences


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