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Answer:. Justification is the answer. Dose limits are not applicable only recommened . Class Activity 4. While caring for his spouse Mr. Joseph got exposed to 2 mSv. As a member of the public with 1 mSv dose limit, he can not get any radiation dose this year. Answer:.

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Justification is the answer.

Dose limits are not applicable only recommened.


Class Activity 4

While caring for his spouse Mr. Joseph got exposed to 2 mSv.

As a member of the public with 1 mSv dose limit, he can not get any radiation dose this year.


The average dose limit for a member of the public should not exceed 1 m Sv/y over 5y.

personal monitoring
Personal Monitoring

Regulations require that workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation wear devices called dosimeters so that accumulated doses can be monitored over a period of time.

There are several types but commonly used are Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs)

personal monitoring1
Personal Monitoring

Is necessary to measure the radiation doses received by the radiation workers in the course of their work to verify that these doses are within the recommended limits.

The medical physicist, RSO will identify individuals who have higher does and counsel them before their neglectfulness reaches serious proportions.

Methods of personal monitoring: film badges, TLD, pocket dosimeters.

different types of personal dosemeters for monitoring external exposure
Different types of personal dosemeters for monitoring external exposure
  • Film
  • Thermoluminescence
  • dosemeters (TLD)
  • ”electronic” dosemeters
  • Applications in Nuclear medicine
  • personal dosemeters (body, fingers…)
  • special measurements


whole body

what is a tld

Device used to measure and record the exposure of individuals to ionizing radiation outside the body (external dose).

Compared to photographic film dosimeters (film badges), TLD’s are more sensitive, reusable, often more nearly tissue-equivalent, cover a wider range of doses, allows us to measure deep and shallow doses, and most TLD materials are less subject to fading

what are the different types of tlds
What are the different types of TLDs?
  • Several types of TLD depending on the type of radiation and energies and the nature of work of the users.
  • Types:
    • Whole Body (Personal),
    • Environmental,
    • Neutron
    • Extremity Dosimeters.
who should wear them
Who Should Wear Them:

Persons who are routinely exposed to radiation should wear (monitoring device).

Occasionally exposed workers need not to be monitored but removed from the exposure area/lead aprons when required.

Health care members who assist patients with radiographic procedures should be rotated.

how to wear a tld
How to wear a TLD:

TLD badge should be worn at the level of the waist or at the collar/neck region UNLESS pregnant.

Pregnant radiation workers should wear 2 TLD’s one on each location.

Radiologists/ Radiographers rarely wear ring badges; most often, they are worn by nuclear medicine technologists because of their exposure from handling radioisotopes.


Bench top shield

Vial shields

Syringe shields

shielding of sources
  • Factors affecting the design:
  • radionuclide
  • activity
  • shielding material
monitoring equipment


(effective dose, extremity dose & contamination)


(external dose rate & contamination)

detector material
Detector material
  • Any material that exhibits measurable radiation related
  • changes can be used as detector for ionising radiation.
  • Change of colours
  • Chemical changes
  • Emission of visible light
  • Electric charge
  • Active detectors: immediate measurement of the change.
  • Passive detectors: processing before reading.
safety equipment
Safety equipment
  • Shields
  • Protective clothing
  • Tools for remote handling
  • of radioactive material
  • Containers for radioactive
  • waste
  • Dose rate monitor with
  • alarm
  • Contamination monitor
  • Decontamination kit
  • Signs, labels and records


forceps and tongs

Part 4. Design


signs labels and records
Signs, labels and records

Activity:4312 MBq Volume:12 ml

Activity concentration; 359 MBq/ml

Date: 2001-10-18 Time: 07.45



Tc.generator no: A2376

Reference activity: 30 GBq

Reference date: Oct 12 12.00 GMT

white i label
White-I Label
  • < 5.0 Sv/h @ surface
  • < 0.05 Sv/h @ 1.0 m
yellow ii label
Yellow-II Label
  • < 500 Sv/h, > 5 Sv/h

@ surface

  • < 10 Sv/h @ 1.0 m
yellow iii label
Yellow-III Label
  • > 500 Sv/h,< 2000Sv/h

@ surface

  • > 10Sv/h, < 100Sv/h

@ 1.0m


My resident doctor has got 12 mSv in her last badge report as she was wearing the badge while getting her barium study. She wants off from radiation work.


medical physics
Medical Physics:

What is medical physics:

The application of physics to medicine. It generally concerns physics as applied to medical imaging and radiotherapy, although a medical physicist may also work in many other areas of healthcare.

role of medical physicist in radiology
Role of Medical Physicist in radiology:
  • Responsible for equipment performance (Quality Assurance Program) to maintain optimal diagnostic imaging quality with minimum radiation hazard to the patient and workers.
  • Maintain and develop quality control tests that would detect changes in imaging systems’ function and keep measurable records of all parameters.
  • Involved in technical specification writing and acceptance testing of new equipment acquired.
  • Establish and maintain a radiation safety program within the department.

Supervise the preparation and handling, disposal of radionuclide.

  • Take part in monitoring, record keeping of staff exposure levels and insure all occupational radiation exposures are monitored.
  • Interact with vendors of medical equipment regarding safety concerns of the department’s imagines systems.
  • Review and implement all policies and procedures related to radiation safety.
  • Involved in training and awareness of hospital staff concerning radiation safety and radioactive waste.
post lecture survey
Post lecture survey:

As done before please answer the following MCQs.

contact details
Contact details:

Via Email: [email protected]

In-person: basement next to the MRI.

For lectures and previous exams check my web page: