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Republic of Kazakhstan Priority Issues in 7 Major River Basins. Summary of Identified Priority Problems in the River Basins of Kazakhstan . Priority Issues in 7 Major River Basins Problems Grouped by Water Uses (Sectors). 136 Priority Problems.

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republic of kazakhstan priority issues in 7 major river basins
Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

Summary of

Identified Priority Problems

in the River Basins of Kazakhstan

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins problems grouped by water uses sectors
Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsProblems Grouped by Water Uses (Sectors)

136 Priority Problems

Fritz Schwaiger

republic of kazakhstan priority issues in 7 major river basins3
Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Water Management

36 Priority Problems (26%)

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins resource or management problem
Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsResource or Management Problem?

UN Water Stress Indicator

Fresh water withdrawal versus available resources

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins water resources distribution

Is

5 mm/a

643m³/c

TT

5 mm/a

1,081m³/c

Ir

68 mm/a

7,229m³/c

UC

33 mm/a

5,723m³/c

NS

4 mm/a

1,054m³/c

BA

37 mm/a

5,042 m³/c

SD

33 mm/a

5,723 m³/c

ST

24 mm/a

5,165m³/c

Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsWater Resources Distribution

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins fresh water withdrawals m capita a
Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsFresh Water Withdrawals (m³/capita,a)

Kazakhstan

In 1999: 1275 m³/c,a

In 1993: 2000 m³/c,a

Source:

OECD

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins water management strategy
Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsWater Management Strategy
  • Policy paper (EU Framework Directive)
    • Protection of all waters (surface and groundwater)
    • Achieve good status for all waters (coordinate objectives)
    • Water management based on river basins (plan)
    • Combined approach: emission limits and quality standards (immission)
    • Get prices right (true costs, but with derogations)
    • Public participation

Fritz Schwaiger

republic of kazakhstan priority issues in 7 major river basins8
Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Legislation and Institutions

12 Priority Problems (9%)

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins legislation institutional strategy
Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsLegislation/Institutional Strategy
  • Modern water code (on its way)
  • Strengthen institutions (capacity & power)
    • Committee for Water Resources
    • River Basin Authorities
  • Nura Ishim River Basin Management (pilot) Project

Fritz Schwaiger

republic of kazakhstan priority issues in 7 major river basins10
Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Urban Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal

22 Priority Problems (16%)

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins magnitude of the problem
Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsMagnitude of the Problem

8.38 million = urban population 56% (1999)

  • Municipal Water Supply
    • 70-75% water supply connection rate
    • 75-80% comply with quality norms  (52-60%)
  • Wastewater Disposal
    • 60-70% Sewage collectionthereof 65-70% biol. treated  (40-50%)

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins causes of the problems
Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsCauses of the Problems
  • Deterioration of infrastructure

Estimated required investments for urban water supply: $ 1.1 bln.

Assets / service level

service level

book value

25

50

years

today

Fritz Schwaiger

republic of kazakhstan priority issues in 7 major river basins13
Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Rural Water Supply

and Sanitation

12 Priority Problems (9%)

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins magnitude of the problem14
Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsMagnitude of the Problem
  • 6.58 million rural population = 44% (1999)
  • 7845 settlements
  • Supply coverage reduced (1991-1999):by settlements: - 31%by population: from 45%  ~25%
  • Non-compliance with quality standards:30% in Almaty, 90% in Zhambyl Oblast
  • infection diseases increase

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins proposed strategy
Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsProposed Strategy
  • Individual solutions required:
    • Actual water demand?
    • Affordability and willingness?
    • Define service level
    • Study alternative sources available
    • Define least cost solution covering demand
    • Define owner and operator
    • Define tariff and subsidy regime (sustainable)

Urgent investments: $ 250-400 million

Fritz Schwaiger

republic of kazakhstan priority issues in 7 major river basins16
Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Ecology

19 Priority Problems (14%)

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins ecological problems
Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsEcological Problems
  • Protection of environment = protection of water resources
  • This is a strong contribution to provision of drinking water & water for other uses (sectors)
  • Balance of:economical – social – ecological aspects

Fritz Schwaiger

republic of kazakhstan priority issues in 7 major river basins18
Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Data Base

and Monitoring

13 Priority Problems (10%)

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins data base and monitoring
Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsData Base and Monitoring
  • A deficit for all kind of information exists
    • Define carefully information needs!
    • Define monitoring strategy and network
    • Data collection and analysis
    • Reports: information, not only data
  • River Basin Authorities to be in charge plus a central data base

Fritz Schwaiger

republic of kazakhstan priority issues in 7 major river basins20
Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Industrial Water Supply and Pollution Reduction

8 Priority Problems (6%)

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins proposed strategy for industries
Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsProposed Strategy for Industries
  • Clean-up of hot spots
    • E.g. Nura river, UK groundwater pollution
  • Regulatory approach
    • Operational issues (water code & decrees)
    • Develop branch specific effluent standards
    • Develop realistic strategic action plan with transition periods (to achieve good status  not to kill viable industry)
    • Access to financing (e.g. eco fund)

Fritz Schwaiger

republic of kazakhstan priority issues in 7 major river basins22
Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Agricultural Water Supply

6 Priority Problems (4%)

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins agricultural water supply
Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsAgricultural Water Supply
  • Irrigated land reduced to 1/3 since 1993
  • Rehabilitate schemes which have:
    • Identified owner/ operator
    • Amelioration associations (1000 – 5000ha)
    • Low pumping heads
    • Marketable irrigated products
    • Rehabilitation cost approx. < 1000 $/ha

Estimated investments required in sector: $ 600 mln.

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins other priority problems
Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsOther Priority Problems
  • (3) Education and training of water professionals
  • (3) Hydropower, Dam Safety and Flood Protection
  • (1) Professional Fisheries
  • (1) Inland Navigation; Shulba

Fritz Schwaiger

priority issues in 7 major river basins the main challenges
Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsThe main challenges
  • Water management problem
    • legislation, institutional reforms
  • Urban water supply infrastructure – in critical condition $ 1,100 Mln.
  • Rural water supply – only ¼ coverage left $ 250-400 Mln.
  • Industry: main polluter
    • Clean-up actions and regulatory actions
  • Agricultural water supply $ 600 Mln.

Fritz Schwaiger

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