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Republic of Kazakhstan Priority Issues in 7 Major River Basins. Summary of Identified Priority Problems in the River Basins of Kazakhstan . Priority Issues in 7 Major River Basins Problems Grouped by Water Uses (Sectors). 136 Priority Problems.

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Republic of Kazakhstan Priority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

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Republic of kazakhstan priority issues in 7 major river basins l.jpg

Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

Summary of

Identified Priority Problems

in the River Basins of Kazakhstan

Fritz Schwaiger


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Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsProblems Grouped by Water Uses (Sectors)

136 Priority Problems

Fritz Schwaiger


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Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Water Management

36 Priority Problems (26%)

Fritz Schwaiger


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Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsResource or Management Problem?

UN Water Stress Indicator

Fresh water withdrawal versus available resources

Fritz Schwaiger


Priority issues in 7 major river basins water resources distribution l.jpg

Is

5 mm/a

643m³/c

TT

5 mm/a

1,081m³/c

Ir

68 mm/a

7,229m³/c

UC

33 mm/a

5,723m³/c

NS

4 mm/a

1,054m³/c

BA

37 mm/a

5,042 m³/c

SD

33 mm/a

5,723 m³/c

ST

24 mm/a

5,165m³/c

Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsWater Resources Distribution

Fritz Schwaiger


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Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsFresh Water Withdrawals (m³/capita,a)

Kazakhstan

In 1999: 1275 m³/c,a

In 1993: 2000 m³/c,a

Source:

OECD

Fritz Schwaiger


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Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsWater Management Strategy

  • Policy paper (EU Framework Directive)

    • Protection of all waters (surface and groundwater)

    • Achieve good status for all waters (coordinate objectives)

    • Water management based on river basins (plan)

    • Combined approach: emission limits and quality standards (immission)

    • Get prices right (true costs, but with derogations)

    • Public participation

Fritz Schwaiger


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Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Legislation and Institutions

12 Priority Problems (9%)

Fritz Schwaiger


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Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsLegislation/Institutional Strategy

  • Modern water code (on its way)

  • Strengthen institutions (capacity & power)

    • Committee for Water Resources

    • River Basin Authorities

  • Nura Ishim River Basin Management (pilot) Project

Fritz Schwaiger


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Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Urban Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal

22 Priority Problems (16%)

Fritz Schwaiger


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Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsMagnitude of the Problem

8.38 million = urban population 56% (1999)

  • Municipal Water Supply

    • 70-75% water supply connection rate

    • 75-80% comply with quality norms  (52-60%)

  • Wastewater Disposal

    • 60-70% Sewage collectionthereof 65-70% biol. treated  (40-50%)

Fritz Schwaiger


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Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsCauses of the Problems

  • Deterioration of infrastructure

    Estimated required investments for urban water supply: $ 1.1 bln.

Assets / service level

service level

book value

25

50

years

today

Fritz Schwaiger


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Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Rural Water Supply

and Sanitation

12 Priority Problems (9%)

Fritz Schwaiger


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Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsMagnitude of the Problem

  • 6.58 million rural population = 44% (1999)

  • 7845 settlements

  • Supply coverage reduced (1991-1999):by settlements: - 31%by population: from 45%  ~25%

  • Non-compliance with quality standards:30% in Almaty, 90% in Zhambyl Oblast

  • infection diseases increase

Fritz Schwaiger


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Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsProposed Strategy

  • Individual solutions required:

    • Actual water demand?

    • Affordability and willingness?

    • Define service level

    • Study alternative sources available

    • Define least cost solution covering demand

    • Define owner and operator

    • Define tariff and subsidy regime (sustainable)

      Urgent investments: $ 250-400 million

Fritz Schwaiger


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Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Ecology

19 Priority Problems (14%)

Fritz Schwaiger


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Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsEcological Problems

  • Protection of environment = protection of water resources

  • This is a strong contribution to provision of drinking water & water for other uses (sectors)

  • Balance of:economical – social – ecological aspects

Fritz Schwaiger


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Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Data Base

and Monitoring

13 Priority Problems (10%)

Fritz Schwaiger


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Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsData Base and Monitoring

  • A deficit for all kind of information exists

    • Define carefully information needs!

    • Define monitoring strategy and network

    • Data collection and analysis

    • Reports: information, not only data

  • River Basin Authorities to be in charge plus a central data base

Fritz Schwaiger


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Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Industrial Water Supply and Pollution Reduction

8 Priority Problems (6%)

Fritz Schwaiger


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Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsProposed Strategy for Industries

  • Clean-up of hot spots

    • E.g. Nura river, UK groundwater pollution

  • Regulatory approach

    • Operational issues (water code & decrees)

    • Develop branch specific effluent standards

    • Develop realistic strategic action plan with transition periods (to achieve good status  not to kill viable industry)

    • Access to financing (e.g. eco fund)

Fritz Schwaiger


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Republic of KazakhstanPriority Issues in 7 Major River Basins

The Priority Problems of

Agricultural Water Supply

6 Priority Problems (4%)

Fritz Schwaiger


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Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsAgricultural Water Supply

  • Irrigated land reduced to 1/3 since 1993

  • Rehabilitate schemes which have:

    • Identified owner/ operator

    • Amelioration associations (1000 – 5000ha)

    • Low pumping heads

    • Marketable irrigated products

    • Rehabilitation cost approx. < 1000 $/ha

      Estimated investments required in sector: $ 600 mln.

Fritz Schwaiger


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Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsOther Priority Problems

  • (3) Education and training of water professionals

  • (3) Hydropower, Dam Safety and Flood Protection

  • (1) Professional Fisheries

  • (1) Inland Navigation; Shulba

Fritz Schwaiger


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Priority Issues in 7 Major River BasinsThe main challenges

  • Water management problem

    • legislation, institutional reforms

  • Urban water supply infrastructure – in critical condition $ 1,100 Mln.

  • Rural water supply – only ¼ coverage left $ 250-400 Mln.

  • Industry: main polluter

    • Clean-up actions and regulatory actions

  • Agricultural water supply $ 600 Mln.

Fritz Schwaiger


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