Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Development in China. Professor Shujie Yao and Dr Dan Luo School of Contemporary Chinese studies University of Nottingham. Outline. Can China sustain its fast growth? What is the implication on environment? Energy consumption & growth
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Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Development in China
Professor Shujie Yao and Dr Dan Luo
School of Contemporary Chinese studies
University of Nottingham
----“development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs”.
-- Past: Western Industrial Revolution: fossil fuels pollution global warming, ocean acidification, loss of tropical forests and water supply shortage
-- Present: Emerging economies: emissions from BRICs
Highly energy-intensive growth path
Massive consumption: 3.2 bil.TCEin 2010, 20% of world total, >US, largest energy consumer
Massive imports: oil (2010) 239 mil tons, 53% of total demand. By 2030, import dependency, 80% of oil, 10-20% of coal energy security problems
Severe environmental pollution.
However, current trend not promising due to
Poor industrial structure and lack of innovation
-- Energy reserves << demand, esp. oil energy security;
-- Per capita consumption low but aggregate demand massive
a) Rapid urbanization and industrialization
b) Changing consumption of people due to rising income
Composition of China’s energy consumption, 1978-2009
-- Fast economic growth with fast energy growth
-- Low efficiency in China: 4.5 times energy and 3.8 times electricity for same amount of GDP compared to OECD
-- Energy efficiency of China significantly lower than India and Brazil.
High demand/low efficiency
of energy in China: Factor I
Economic and industrial structure: GDP dominated by industry
Exports of energy intensive products, (billion US $)
High demand/low efficiency of energy in ChinaFactor III: Industry relocation coastalto inlandEnergy production/consumption by region, 1990-09
Factors for China’s rising energy consumption
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