Chapter 22— The Respiratory System. Ch. 22 (Respiratory Sys.) Study Guide. Critically read Chapter 22 pp. 864-886 right before 22.3 “Gas Exchange and Transport” section Comprehend Terminology (those in bold)
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Chapter 22— The Respiratory System
Critically read Chapter 22 pp. 864-886 right before 22.3 “Gas Exchange and Transport” section
Comprehend Terminology (those in bold)
Study-- Figure questions, Think About It questions, and Before You Go On (section-ending) questions
Do end-of-the-chapter questions:
Testing Your Recall— 1-5, 7, 10, 11-18
True or False– 1, 2, 4-6, 8
Testing Your Comprehension– 1, 4, 5
Fear less, hope more;
Whine less, breathe more;
Talk less, say more;
Hate less, love more;
And all good things are yours.
Every day brings a chance
for you to draw in a breath,
kick off your shoes,
Self-Check Question: As we breathe in, what respiratory organs, in order, does air pass through?
Answer: Nose (mouth) . . .
§ 1. Nose
External Anatomy of Nasal Region
Which passage way (air or food) is at the anterior?
Figure 22.3 b+c
Lower respiratory tract
The superior three (large):
The other 3 small pairs of cartilages:
The above two pairs of cartilages function in speech
Anatomy/Histology: Beginning of lower respiratory tract (Fig. 22.7 a-c +x)
See next three slides
Ciliated Pseudostratified Epi.
All bronchi are supported by cartilages
Bronchioles(lack cartilage; 1 mm or less in diameter; ciliated simple columnar to ciliated simple cuboidal epi.)
Def. --Highly branched system of air tubes from the primary bronchi to about 65,000 terminal bronchioles
Resemble inverted trees
Fig. 22.0 + X
Right lung; 10 segments
Left lung; 8 segments
Each broncho-pulmonary segment by a different color of resin
Right lung; 10 broncho-pulmonary segments
Left lung; 8 broncho-pulmonary segments
Alveolar Blood Supply
Pore of Kohn
A. Branch of
C. Branch of
(beginning of respiratory division)
Pores of Kohn
B. Great alveolar cell
A. Squamous alveolar cell
What is respiratory membrane?
b and c
Identify A, B, C, and D.
Questions (muddiest points)?
Figure x (Boyle’s Law explained)
Each container with the same number of gas molecules
A. Volume = 1/2
Pressure = 2
B. Volume = 1
Pressure = 1
C. Volume = 2
Pressure = 1/2
PV = K
A 2-dimentional figure
dimension of (z)
A 3-dimentional figure
no net movement of air
size of thorax
size of lungs
760 mm Hg
Size of thorax on
Size of lungs as they
are stretched to fill
the expanded thorax; pressure
757-759 mm Hg (from 760)
Muscles of deeper
Contraction of internal intercostal
muscles flattens ribs and
sternum, further reducing
side-to-side and front-to-back
dimensions of thoracic cavity
A review slide on expiration
of abdominal muscles
Position of relaxed
Contractions of abdominal
muscles cause diaphragm to
be pushed upward, further
reducing vertical dimension
of thoracic cavity
Return of diaphragm, ribs, and sternum
to resting position on relaxation of
inspiratory muscles restores thoracic
cavity to preinspiratory size
760 mm Hg
Size of thorax on
761 mm Hg (from 760)
Size of lungs as
1. from higher brain centers
3. Central Chemoreceptors
4. CN IX and X
Spinal integrating centers
Q--Where exactly are the medulla oblongata and the pons located, respectively?
Answer: medulla oblongata is the most caudal part of the brainstem (stalklike lower portion of the brain), immediately superior to the spinal cord
Q-- Is it possible that temperamental children may hold their breath until they die?
Introduction– (Mostly we have talked about)
During inspiration; how lungs are expanded?
Recoiling mechanisms during expiration:
760; intra-pulmonary pressure
756; intrapleural pressure
A– Parietal pleura; B—pleural cavity (pleural fluid); C– Visceral pleura
Does all inhaled air enter the alveoli?
a capacity is the sum of more than two volumes
§ Measurements of Ventilation (3)
Work on this figure at home.
1 sec interval