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lec1 - Computer Graphics

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### lec1-Computer Graphics

Instructor : HayaSammaneh

Computer Graphics

- Computer advances rapidly
- Computer Graphics used in almost fields such as:
- Science
- Art
- Engineering
- Training
- Entertainment
- Education
- Medicine

Computer Graphics

- Open GL
- GLUT[Graphics Library Utility Toolkit] : combine Open GL with windows system

What is computer graphics?

Imaging= representing 2D images

Modeling = representing 3D objects

Rendering = constructing 2D images from 3D models

Animation= simulating changes over time

Graphics- Applications

• Graphics and Chart

- Entertainment
- Computer-aided design
- Scientific visualization
- Training
- Education

Graphics and Chart

- Used to display simple data graphs
- Show data relationship
- Used to summarize statistical , mathematical , engineering and scientific data.
- Example
- Line graph
- Bar graph
- Pie charts
- Surface charts
- Contour plots

Application, CAD we apply modeling, lighting and rendering

Definitions

- Pixel [Picture Element]: it is infinities of points with very small size.
- Resolution: is a number of pixel per unit area
- Higher resolution better display
- Aspect Ratio: is a factor to obtain equal length
Example : draw square

Definitions

- Display: have a finite number of pixels found on screen
- Monochrome: need only one bit [on, off]
- Color Monitor: need more than one bit [on, off, color]

1- Image ProcessingComposition and Morphing

Image Morphing: The idea is to create a sequence of intermediate images, which when put together with the original images, represents the transition from one image to the other.

Image Morphing

2- Rendering

Rendering is the process of generating an image from a model, by means of computer programs.

The model is a description of 3D objects.

The model would contain geometry,viewpoint, texture, lighting, and shading information.

What is an Image?

- An image is a 2D rectilinear array of pixels

Display Hardware Ink-jet printer Laser printer Pen plotter

Video display devices

» Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)

» Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

- Plasma panels
- Thin-film displays
- Light-emitting diodes (LED)
Hard-copy devices

Cathode Ray Tube-CRT

- Basic Operation:
- a beam of electrons is emitted by an electron gun and passes through focusing and deflection system that direct the beam toward specified positions on the phosphor-coated screen
- Phosphor emits a small spot of light at each position and fades very rapidly

Cathode Ray Tube-CRT

- Need to redraw the picture repeatedly by quickly directing the electron beam back over the same screen points (Refresh CRT)
- Refresh Rate: is the frequency of which a picture is redrawn on the screen

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