primary resource factor for systematic evaluation of heating and cooling options
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Primary Resource Factor – for systematic evaluation of heating and cooling options. What is PRF PRF of heating and cooling systems PRF and competitiveness. Primary Resource Factor (PRF). ENERGY. Building. Primary Energy Source. EVALUATION. 25 kWh resource energy

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primary resource factor for systematic evaluation of heating and cooling options

Primary Resource Factor– for systematic evaluation of heating and cooling options

What is PRF

PRF of heating and cooling systems

PRF and competitiveness

primary resource factor prf
Primary Resource Factor (PRF)

ENERGY

Building

Primary Energy Source

EVALUATION

25 kWh resource energy

(Primary Resource Factor 2,5)

Electricity 10 kWh

Efficiency 40 %

Pellet factory & transportation

1 kWh resource energy

(Primary Resource Factor 0,1)

Pellets 10 kWh

EHP Annual conference 2006

energy saving investment heat recovery system
Energy saving investment (heat recovery system)

Evaluation limited to building

Heat loss (ventilation, etc.)

Whole energy chain taken into account

After: 70 and 10 additional electricity

Before 100

Electricity (PRF = 2,5)

District heat (PRF = 0,1)

EHP Annual conference 2006

cooling solution in building
Cooling solution in building

Evaluation limited to building

Whole energy chain taken into account

Cooling demand =100

Electricity (PRF = 2,5)

District cooling (PRF = 0,1)

EHP Annual conference 2006

primary resource factor prf1
Primary Resource Factor (PRF)
  • PRF sounds like a complicated term, but it provides a simple answer to the efficiency of heating and cooling systems.
  • Calculation method is presented in a draft version of the European standard (Heating Systems in Buildings). The Standard will be part of the implementation of a Directive (Energy Performance of Buildings).
  • Takes into account the whole energy chain and energy market.
  • PRF defines the ratio between fossil energy supply and energy used in building.
  • Excludes the renewable part of primary energy. Gives advantages to renewable energy but does not automatically lower factor. Only a renewable that replaces the fossil supply on the market receives a lower PRF.
  • Fossil fuel supply provides a good estimate on CO2 emissions.
  • Tool to compare the efficiency of different heating and cooling systems.
  • PRF is not a scientifically “truth” and it does not need be. It is a tool to make heating and cooling market more efficient.

EHP Annual conference 2006

prf for different heating options
PRF for different heating options

2

1

Electric

heating

Oil or gas boiler

Heat pump

DH

(Coal CHP)

DH

(Gas CHP)

DH

(Biomass,

waste incineration)

DH

(Waste heat)

DH

(Heat only boilers with fossil)

EHP Annual conference 2006

prf for different cooling options
PRF for different cooling options

2

1

Cooling with Chillers

DC

(Free Cooling)

DC

(Absorption; by waste heat)

DC

(Absorption; heat from CHP)

DC

(Absorption;

Biomass)

DC

(Absorption;

Waste Incineration)

DHC

(Heat pump)

EHP Annual conference 2006

prf examples from europe
PRF examples from Europe

EHP Annual conference 2006

prf and co2 emissions
PRF and CO2 emissions

EHP Annual conference 2006

competitiveness and efficiency
Competitiveness and efficiency
  • Competitiveness on the heating and cooling market is the key to increasing the market share of efficient systems – customer’s choice.
  • There should be free competition between different heating and cooling options.
  • No special financial support, taxes or any other special regulation. No special treatment for heating and cooling options.
  • Financial support, taxes or any other regulation should be based on the total efficiency of heating or cooling solution.
  • Systems with low PRF value should not be disadvantaged by regulation
  • Savings should not be financially supported, but regulation should support investments and customer choices that make the market more efficient.

EHP Annual conference 2006

should this type of energy saving investment receive financial support
Should this type of energy saving investment receive financial support?

Evaluation limited to building

Heat loss (ventilation, etc.)

Whole energy chain taken account

After: 70 and 10 additional electricity

Before 100

Electricity (PRF = 2,5)

District heat (PRF = 0,1)

EHP Annual conference 2006

what type of systems should the regulation support
What type of systems should the regulation support?

2

1

Electric

heating

Oil or gas boiler

Heat pump

DH

(Coal CHP)

DH

(Gas CHP)

DH

(Biomass,

waste incineration)

DH

(Waste heat)

DH

(Heat only boilers with fossil)

EHP Annual conference 2006

market share of dh and dc
Market share of DH and DC

1 % greater market share for DH in Europe:

  • 35 TWh less fossil fuel supply(equal to yearly electricity production in Hungary)
  • 10 million tons of CO2 (equal to yearly CO2 emissions in Luxemburg)

500 TWh cooling in Europe in the year 2018.

DC market share 40 % compared to DC market share 10 %:

  • 200 TWh fossil fuel supply(more than yearly electricity production in Benelux countries)
  • 70 million tons of CO2 (equal to yearly CO2 emissions in Denmark or Ireland or Sweden)

EHP Annual conference 2006

next step
Next step
  • Goals for heating and cooling in Europe: decreased fossil fuel supply and reduced CO2 emissions.
  • Generating savings or increasing the use of renewable energy in heating and cooling should not be the main focus. Savings or uses of renewable energy are only part of the solution to achieve reduced fossil supply and decrease in CO2 emissions.
  • Efficiency evaluation should take into account whole energy chain and entire energy market. Assessment of energy performance shall not be limited to the buildings where energy consumption takes place.
  • PRF is a tool to understand
    • What kinds of systems really are efficient.
    • What is the customer’s best choice.
    • What kinds of investments make heating and cooling market more efficient.
  • Allow free competition combined with regulation that supports efficient systems.

EHP Annual conference 2006

use energy but use it in a smart way
Use energy, but use it in a smart way!

Don’t save energy – save resources!

PRF is a tool to find low fossil heating and cooling systems – greater market share for low PRF systems have a huge impact on fossil supply and CO2

Let’s work together to make heating and cooling market more efficient. PRF does not make the market more efficient, it is only a tool. It’s up to all of us to make it happen!

THANK YOU!

EHP Annual conference 2006

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