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2/25 Focus: The Crusades and improvements in farming helped contribute to renewed interest in trade in Western Europe Do Now: How did the Crusades renew interest in trade in Western Europe? . Improvements in Farming. Iron Plow

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2 25 focus

  • 2/25 Focus:

    • The Crusades and improvements in farming helped contribute to renewed interest in trade in Western Europe

  • Do Now:

    • How did the Crusades renew interest in trade in Western Europe?

Improvements in farming

Improvements in Farming

  • Iron Plow

    • The use of the Iron plow made farming easier and increased food production

  • The Horse Collar and iron horse shoes

    • allowed farmers to use horses rather than oxen to plow fields

    • Horses were faster and more efficient

Improvements in farming1

Improvements in Farming

  • The Three Field System

    • Increased food production and made soil more fertile

Trade improves

Trade Improves

  • Rise of trading centers

    • Italy in southern Europe

      • Genoa and Venice

    • Flanders in Northern Europe

Trade improves1

Trade Improves

  • Trade Fairs

    • Took place in towns where trade routes met

Trade improves2

Trade Improves

  • The Hanseatic League

    • Association of Germanic cities to protect economic interests

    • Protected traders from piracy

Trade improves3

Trade Improves

  • Improvements in trade led to Commercial Revolution

    • Increased use of currency

    • Banking and investment increases

    • Rise of Capitalism

      • Economic system where business is owned privately to make a profit

      • Competition is a key component

Growth of towns

Growth of Towns

  • Trading centers and Trade Fairs led to the birth of towns

    • Walled and protected near the manor

    • King or lord granted charter

      • Setup the rights and privileges of a town

    • People governed and defended the town

Growth of towns1

Growth of Towns

  • Many serfs left the manors and moved into towns/cities

    • Could be free in cities if they hid from their lord for a year and one day

    • Increased populations in towns

      • Towns were often overcrowded and dirty

    • Led to a decline in feudalism



  • Identify one way that farming improved during the Middle Ages

  • What were trade guilds?

2 25 focus

  • 2/26 Focus:

    • During the High Middle Ages, European society became more stable and made cultural gains in the areas of art, literature, and architecture

  • Do Now:

    • Identify one effect that the renewal of trade had on Western Europe

Trade guilds

Trade Guilds

  • Association of businesses and craftsmen

    • Set prices for goods, wages, and standards for quality

    • Apprentices worked for 3-11 years under a master

    • Strangers had to pay a toll to the guilds to sell their products in a town

    • Guilds took care of widows and children of deceased members

Results of trade improvements

Results of Trade Improvements

  • Commercial Revolution

  • Growth of middle class

  • New jobs titles

    • Bankers, manufacturers, craftsmen

  • Rise of national kingdoms

Revival of learning

Revival of Learning

  • The University

    • Increased the flow of Greek learning into Europe

    • Goal of attending universities was often to get a job in government or with the Church

    • Helped to create a new educated class



  • Literacy began to increase in Europe after 1200 AD.

    • Coincided with growth of cities

  • Authors began writing in the language of their countries rather than just Latin



  • Epics and Romances were long poems that tell a story

    • Epics

      • Often related to war and heroes

      • The Song of Roland

    • Romances

      • Love stories and chivalry

      • King Arthur and the Knights of the Roundtable



  • The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer

    • Collection of stories about a group of pilgrims from various social groups

    • Provide a description of life in the middle ages



  • Thomas Aquinas

    • Studied the works of Greek philosophers

      • Aristotle

    • Attempted to use logic and reason to prove Christian teachings and prove the existence of God

      • Scholasticism



  • Gothic Architecture used to build churches

  • Used high spires and flying buttresses

  • Replaced Roman style of arches and domes



  • The flying buttress allowed churches to be built much taller and larger window

    • Supported walls from the outside

    • Allowed for higher ceilings and large stained glass windows

    • Eliminated the need for columns



  • The process of decorating a written manuscript with pictures or designs

    • Often used in religious text



  • Large wool wall coverings that depicted life in the Middle Ages



  • Identify one example of medieval literature.

  • Identify the architectural style that developed in Europe during the High Middle Ages.

  • What were trade guilds?

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