World war ii
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World War II. Chapter 16. World War II. After Pearl Harbor, American military leaders focused on halting the Japanese advance and mobilizing the whole nation for war. America’s Early Battles. American Forces halted the Japanese advances in two decisive naval battles. Coral Sea (May 1942)

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World War II

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World war ii

World War II

Chapter 16


World war ii1

World War II

  • After Pearl Harbor, American military leaders focused on halting the Japanese advance and mobilizing the whole nation for war.


America s early battles

America’s Early Battles

  • American Forces halted the Japanese advances in two decisive naval battles.

    • Coral Sea (May 1942)

      • U.S. stopped a fleet convoying Japanese troops to New Guinea

      • Japanese designs on Australia ended

    • Midway (June 1942)

      • Japanese Admiral Yamamoto hoped to capture Midway Island as a base to attack Pearl Harbor again

      • U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz caught the Japanese by surprise and sank 3 of the 4 aircraft carriers


Importance of midway

Importance of Midway

  • The Japanese defeat at Midway was the turning point in the Pacific.

    • Japanese advances stopped.

    • U.S. assumes initiative.

    • Japanese have shortage of able pilots.

  • Censorship and Propaganda

    • News of the defeat was kept from the Japanese public.


Mobilization at home

Mobilization at Home

  • The war effort required all of America’s huge productive capacity and full employment of the workforce.

    • Government expenditures soared.

  • U.S. budget increases

    • 1940 $9 million

    • 1944 $100 million

    • Expenditures in WWII greater than all previous government budgets combined (150 years)

    • GNP 1939 91 billion 1945 166 million


Restoration of prosperity

Restoration of Prosperity

  • World War II ended the Great Depression.

  • Factories run at full capacity

    • Ford Motor Company – one bomber plane per hour

  • People save money (rationing)

  • Army bases in South provide economic boom (most bases in South b/c of climate)

  • The national debt grew to $260 billion (6 times its size on Dec. 7, 1941)


Mobilization at home1

Mobilization at Home

  • Government involvement in the economy

    • War Production Board (WPB) (1942)

      • Directed the conversion of private industries to war production.

    • Growth of centralized big business

    • Income tax (1942) for all not just rich (5%) Government begins withholding from paychecks

    • War bonds


Mobilization at home2

Mobilization at Home

  • Conservation of resources

    • Prices frozen

    • Rationing – gasoline, etc.

    • The public collected scrap metal, etc.

    • Grew their own food in “victory gardens”


Social effects of the war

Social Effects of the War

  • Development of the West

    • Lured by defense-related jobs at high wages

    • Nearly 8 million people moved into the states West of the Mississippi River between 1940 and 1945. (Seattle, San Francisco, San Diego, L.A.)

    • Communities with few African Americans witnessed an influx of blacks.

      • Example: Seattle’s black population jumped from 4,000 to 40,000


Social effects of the war1

Social Effects of the War

  • Changing Roles for Women

    • 6 million women entered the civilian workforce (1/3rd)

    • 200,000 women joined the armed forces

    • Married women and middle age women enter workforce for first time.

    • Attitudes toward sex roles change, at least temporarily

    • “Rosie the Riveter”


Social effects of the war2

Social Effectsof the War

  • Expanded participation of blacks

    • About 1 million blacks enter the armed forces but still serve in segregated units.

    • Kept in service positions – cooks, janitors, etc.

    • Pilots (Tuskegee airmen in Alabama) and combat soldiers were exception rather than norm.

    • Discrimination in defense work forbidden but hard to enforce.


Social effects of the war3

Social Effects of the War

  • Hispanics in Labor Force

    • The bracero program brought some 200,000 Mexican farm workers into the western United States

  • American Indians

    • Were integrated within regular units

    • “Code Talkers” used to “encode” and decipher messages in Indian languages so as to prevent enemy discovery.

  • Internment of Japanese Americans


A grand alliance

A Grand Alliance

The Big Three

  • Great Britain (Winston Churchill)

  • The U.S. (FDR)

  • The Soviet Union (Joseph Stalin)

    Strategies for War

  • Defeat Germany first


Gloomy prospects

Gloomy Prospects

  • By the end of 1942, the Allies faced defeat.

    • The chain of spectacular victories disguised fatal weaknesses within the Axis alliance:

      • Japan and Germany fought separate wars, each on two fronts. They never coordinated strategies.

    • The early defeats also obscured the Allies’ strengths:

      • The manpower of the Soviet Union

      • The productive capacity of the U. S.


Invasion of the soviet union

Invasion of the Soviet Union

  • Hitler’s pivotal mistake.

  • On June 22, 1941, Operation Barbarossa

    • 4 million soldiers along 2,000 mile front

    • German army quickly advanced, but at a terrifying cost.

    • For the next three years, 90 percent of German deaths occurred on the eastern front.


Turning points of the war eastern front

Turning Points of the War:Eastern Front

  • Stalingrad

    • From August 1942 until February 1943 German and Soviet armies fought one of the bloodiest engagements in history.

    • Each side suffered more casualties than the Americans did during the entire war.

    • The Soviets defeated the German army at Stalingrad and then again at the battle of Kursk.

  • The Germans began a long retreat to Berlin.


Turning points of the war western front

Turning Points of the War: Western Front

  • Operation Torch (1943)

    • Allied victory in North Africa and invasion of Italy.

  • D-Day: Operation Overlord

    • The Allied needed to establish a second front.

    • General Dwight Eisenhower launched an invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944.

    • An invasion fleet of some 4,000 ships and 150,000 men (57,000 U.S.)

      • Invasion successful.

      • 5,000 killed and wounded Allied troops.

    • It allowed them to gain a foothold on the continent from which they could push Germany back.


Race to berlin

Race to Berlin

  • D-Day was the turning point of the western front. Stalingrad was the turning point of the eastern front.

  • The British, U.S., and Free French armies began to press into western Germany as the Soviets invaded eastern Germany.

  • Both sides raced to Berlin.


Victory in europe

Victory in Europe

  • April, 1945

    • Mussolini is captured and killed

    • Hitler commits suicide

  • Berlin falls to Soviets on May 2, 1945.

  • Germany surrendered unconditionally on May 7 (8), 1945. (V-E Day)


The holocaust

The Holocaust

  • 11 million died in German death camps

  • 3.5 million Russians

  • 6 million Jews

    • (2/3 of European Jews)

  • Hitler’s “Final Solution”

    • Systematic genocide


A grinding war against japan

A Grinding War against Japan

  • In 1945, the U.S. began targeting people in order to coerce Japan to surrender

    • 66 major Japanese cities bombed

    • 500,000 civilians killed

  • Iwo Jima (February, 1945)

    • American marines invaded this island, which was needed to provide fighter escort for bombings over Japan

  • Okinawa (April, 1945)

    • U.S. invaded this island, which would provide a staging area for the invasion of the Japanese islands.


Atom diplomacy

Atom Diplomacy

  • FDR had funded the top-secret Manhattan Project to develop an atomic bomb

  • Dr. Robert Oppenheimer successfully tested in the summer of 1945.

  • FDR had died on April 12, 1945, and the decision was left to Harry Truman.

  • An amphibious invasion could cost over 350,000 Allied casualties.


Turning points of the war the pacific

Turning Points of the War: The Pacific

  • August 6, 1945 – Enola Gay drops bomb on Hiroshima

    • 140,000 dead; tens of thousands injured; radiation sickness; 80% of buildings destroyed

  • August 9, 1945 – Nagasaki

    • 70,000 dead; 60,000 injured

  • Emperor Hirohito surrenders on Aug. 14, 1945. (V-J Day)

  • Formal surrender signed on September 2 onboard the battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay


Cost of war

Cost of War

  • Germany - 3 million combat deaths (3/4ths on the eastern front)

  • Japan – over 1.5 combat deaths; 900,000 civilians

  • Soviet Union - 13 million combat deaths

  • U.S. – 300,000 combat deaths, over 100,000 other deaths

  • When you include all combat and civilian deaths, World War II becomes the most destructive war in history with estimates as high as 60 million, including 25 million Russians.


Significant events

Significant Events

1931 Japan invades Manchuria

1935 First Neutrality Act

 1939 World War II begins in Europe

 1940 Roosevelt wins third term

 1941 Congress adopts Lend-Lease Act

Roosevelt & Churchill sign Atlantic Charter

Pearl harbor attacked

 1942 WPB and WLB created

Battles of Guadalcanal and Midway fought

American and British troops invade North Africa

 1944 D-Day invasion of France

Island hopping campaign reaches Guam

 1945 Atom bombs dropped on Japan


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