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Chapter 11 Business & Technology. Business Essentials  Mrs. Wilson. BEFORE ACTIVITY – Think-Write-Pair-Share. Why is it easier to manage information with computers than without computers?. 11-1 Computer Systems.

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Chapter 11 business technology
Chapter 11Business & Technology

Business Essentials  Mrs. Wilson

Before activity think write pair share
BEFORE ACTIVITY – Think-Write-Pair-Share

  • Why is it easier to manage information with computers than without computers?

11 1 computer systems
11-1 Computer Systems

  • In this lesson, an overview of computer systems, along with various software applications, is presented.

Computers in society
Computers in Society

  • Computers are everywhere!

    • Grocery stores, retail stores, schools, offices, homes

  • Computers in business are used to store, process, and report information

  • Nearly every business uses some type of computer

  • A company needs quick, efficient processing to control its operating costs, manage resources, and stay competitive

  • Each day in banks, stores, offices, factories, homes, and non-profit organizations, the use of computer systems is expanding

  • Managers must decide how best to use technology to serve the needs of the organization

Computers in society1
Computers in Society

  • Computer system – the combination of an input device, a processing unit, memory and storage facilities, and an output device

  • Videos gaming systems, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and automated highway toll collection systems all are examples of computer systems

  • A computer system has 4 basic components:

    • Input device – mouse, keyboard, microphone

    • Processing unit – ‘brain’ of the computer

    • Memory & storage – RAM, ROM, hard drive

    • Output device – monitor, printer, speakers

Computers in society2
Computers in Society

  • Hardware – the physical elements of a computer system

    • Examples: keyboard, mouse, camera, speakers, printer

  • Hardware is constantly changing and expanding

    • Most computers today can handle sound, graphics, animation, and video

    • Built-in cameras

  • Software – refers to the instructions that run the computer system

  • Businesses commonly use several types of software

    • Examples: word processing, spreadsheet, database, presentation, and communication programs

Computers in society3
Computers in Society

  • Computers in businesses and schools are commonly linked together in a computer network

  • Organizations link computers together so users can share hardware, software, and data

  • The Internet is the largest and best known computer network in the world

  • The Internet is most often used for 2 activities:

    • The exchange of email

    • Accessing the Word Wide Web

Input processing
Input & Processing

  • The first major component of a computer system is known as input

  • Data is entered into a computer system with an input device

  • The keyboard and mouse are common input devices

  • Other input devices are often used for specific activities:

    • Touchpads & touch-sensitive screens

    • Controllers & joysticks

    • Light pens

    • Scanners

    • Voice-activated systems

    • Microphones & cameras

Input processing1
Input & Processing

  • How does the data entered by the use of an input device become meaningful information?

  • The 2nd major component of a computer system is the processing unit

  • Processing occurs in the central processing unit (CPU)

  • CPU – the control center of the computer, ‘brain’ of the computer

  • In a personal computer, the CPU consists of tiny wafers or chips

  • These chips carry instructions and data using electronic pulses

Input processing2
Input & Processing

  • The most common way to give instructions to a computer is with a program – a series of detailed, step-by-step instructions that tell the computer what functions to complete

  • The 2 main types of computer programs:

    • Operating system software – translates commands and allows application programs to interact with the computer’s hardware

      • What is an example of an operating system?

    • Application software – programs that perform specific tasks

      • What is an example of application software?

Input processing3
Input & Processing

Types of Application software:

  • Word processing – allows a user to enter, store, revise, and print text

    • Examples: reports, letters, memos, forms

  • Desktop publishing – includes graphics software to prepare charts, graphs, and other visual elements

    • Examples: newsletters, brochures, business cards

  • Database software – an organized collection of information with data items related to one another in some way

    • Examples: iNow

  • Spreadsheet – formats data in columns and rows in order to do calculations

    • Examples: payroll records, financial statements, budgets, grades

  • Presentation software – allows a speaker to show text, data, photos, and other visuals

    • Examples: presentations for school, work, clients

Memory output
Memory & Output

  • The 3rd major component of a computer system is memory

  • When in use, a program is stored in the computer’s memory

  • This memory within the computer is also called internal or primary storage

  • During processing, both the program and any data entered with an input device are stored in memory

Memory output1
Memory & Output

  • Primary storage cannot hold all of the programs and all of the data needed by computer users

  • Therefore, external or auxiliary storage that is not part of memory is available for storing both programs and data

  • A hard disk (or hard drive) is housed inside the computer allowing storage of billions of characters

  • CDs, DVDs, and flash drives are examples of commonly used auxiliary storage devices

Input processing4
Input & Processing

  • The final component of a computer system is known as output

  • This element is of greatest interest to most people

  • Your score on a video game, the results of a test, or the sales for a new product are important outcomes of data processing activities

    • There are 4 common types of output:

      • Text output

      • Graphics output

      • Audio output

      • Video output

  • Output devices present data in a form that can be retrieved later or may be communicated immediately

  • Common output devices are monitors, printers, and speakers

Let s review
Let’s Review!

  • Give an example of an input device.

  • Give an example of an output device.

  • What are the 2 main types of computer programs?

  • 1 million bytes = a __________

11 2 business applications of technology
11-2 Business Applications of Technology

  • Management information systems and other uses of technology, including e-commerce, are discussed in this lesson.

Management information systems
Management Information Systems

  • Managers need information to make business decisions

  • Management Information System (MIS) – a coordinated system of processing and reporting information in an organization

  • The 4 main components of an MIS are:

    • Gathering data

    • Analyzing data

    • Storing data

    • Reporting results

  • These activities allow an organization to obtain needed information in 4 main categories:

    • Financial information (p275)

    • Production & inventory information

    • Marketing & sales information

    • Human resources information

Management information systems1
Management Information Systems

  • The information for an MIS comes from several sources:

    • External data sources are outside an organization

      • Examples: Financial institutions, government agencies, & customers

    • Internal data sources provide input from within the organization

      • Examples: accounting records, inventory information, & company sales figures

  • The operation of the MIS involves the following steps:

    • Identify the information needs of the organization

    • Obtain facts, figures, and other data

    • Process, analyze, and organize data in a useful manner

    • Distribute information reports to those who make decisions

    • Update data files as needed

  • Computer networks are often used in an MIS to distribute information to managers, employees, and others

  • Technology in service industries
    Technology in Service Industries

    • More than 60% of workers in the U.S. are employed in service industries

      • Public Service

        • Government agencies use computers to keep records (IRS, military, Social Security)

      • Education

        • Computers have become vital teaching devices in schools and offices

        • Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) – the use of computers to help people learn or improve skills at their own pace

      • Health Care

        • Computers widely used in hospital and other medical facilities

        • Uses range from keeping patient records to monitoring medications during surgery

      • Financial Services

        • Electronic banking and other financial services have made it possible for consumers to do business beyond usual banking hours

        • Examples: Paying bills online, checking your credit report, and selling stocks and bonds

    E commerce

    • E-commerce – refers to conducting business transactions using the Internet or other technology

      • Have you ever bought or sold an item online?

    • Almost every function of a company has been adapted to e-commerce

    • The most common e-commerce activities include:

      • Providing product information

      • Promoting a company

      • Selling online

      • Conducting market research

      • Making payments

      • Obtaining parts and supplies

      • Tracking shipments

    • E-commerce opens up opportunities to companies previously limited by geographic or financial restrictions

    Let s review1
    Let’s Review!

    • What is the 1st component of a management information system?

    • What is the use of computers to help people learn or improve skills at their own pace?

    • What is e-commerce?

    11 3 other technology issues
    11-3 Other Technology Issues

    • This lesson considers some of the workplace and personal applications of technology, along with various social concerns.

    Workplace technology
    Workplace Technology

    • Computers are present in almost every business situation

    • They help improve efficiency and productivity

    • Robotics – mechanical devices programmed to do routine tasks, such as those in many factories

      • Example: assembly line work that requires repetitive tasks – see video!

    • Early robots did only simple tasks such as tightening a bolt on an automobile

    • Today, robots exist that can see, hear, smell, and feel

    • Robots can work 24 hours a day

    • They can work in dangerous situations

    • The use of robots is also growing to include automated checkout clerks, airline ticket agents, and hotel desk clerks

    Workplace technology1
    Workplace Technology

    • Telecommuting – involves the activities of a worker using a computer at home to do a job

    • Telecommuting saves travel time and costs

    • It results in less traffic along with reduced noise and air pollution

    • What would be some disadvantages to the employer and employee?

    Home personal technology
    Home & Personal Technology

    • Computers not only change the way you work, but technology also affects almost all aspects of life

      • School & homework (p282)

      • Home robotics

      • Household record keeping

    Social concerns of technology
    Social Concerns of Technology

    • New technology will continue to expand the potential uses of computers in business

    • New software will eliminate some jobs while increasing job growth in others

    • Expanded computer use has resulted in concerns about health and safety, criminal activities, and privacy

    • Employment trends

      • Many people think computers are taking away their jobs

      • What is actually occurring is a shift in the job duties and skills needed to work in business and industry

      • Computer literacy is vital to each person’s economic survival

    • Health concerns

      • Some people encounter discomfort resulting from on-the-job activities

        • Examples: eyestrain, vision problems, muscle tension, nerve damage, carpal tunnel syndrome

    Social concerns of technology1
    Social Concerns of Technology

    • Computer crime

      • Widespread computer use has led to an increase in white-collar crime – illegal acts carried out by office or professional workers while at work

      • Workers may steal money, information, or computer time through improper use of databases or illegal access to computer systems

      • Piracy – stealing or illegally copying software packages or information

      • Computer virus – program code hidden in a system that can later do damage to software or stored data

    • Privacy concerns

      • Identity theft has become a major concern for consumers and companies

      • Thieves obtain information online about a person

    Let s review2
    Let’s Review!

    • What is telecommuting?

    • How have computers affect our lives at home?

    • What are some examples of concerns with the use of technology today?

    After activity review list
    AFTER ACTIVITY – Review & List

    • List the 4 basic components of a computer system.

    • Identify each of the following items as hardware or software:

      • Monitor

      • Word processing program

      • Chips

      • Keyboard

      • Operating system program

      • Disk drive

      • Mouse

      • Printer