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100 Technology & Innovations Management models, diagrams and charts for powerful business presentations and knowledge. Content: Entrepreneurship, Venture Models, Driving Forces, Venture Capital, Growth Phases, Technology Life Cycle, The Chasm Model, The Transilience Map, Diffusion Curve, Technology Strategies, Knowledge Creation Process, Innovation Management, First Mover Advantage, Technology Acquisition, Core Technologies, Technology Portfolio, Patent Management, Intellectual Property, Innovation Types, Kano Model, R&D, New Technologies, Risk Bubble Diagram, Technology Evolution, E-Business Models, Growth Strategies, Start-up, Private Equity, Financing Life Cycle, Product Innovation Process More business diagrams to download on http://www.drawpack.com your visual business knowledge

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slide1

Technology & Innovation...

100 Slides

The

Chasm

The

Mainstream

Market

The Early

Market

Technology

Enthusiasts

Skeptics

Visionaries

Pragmatists

Conservatives

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slide2

Key Words...

Entrepreneurship – Venture Models – Driving Forces – Venture Capital – Growth Phases – Technology Life Cycle – The Chasm Model – The Transilience Map – Diffusion Curve – Technology Strategies – Knowledge Creation Process – Innovation Management – First Mover Advantage – Technology Acquisition – Core Technologies – Technology Portfolio – Patent Management – Intellectual Property – Innovation Types – Kano Model – R&D – New Technologies – Risk Bubble Diagram – Technology Evolution – E-Business Models – Growth Strategies – Start-up – Private Equity – Financing Life Cycle – Product Innovation Process

who is the entrepreneur
Who is the Entrepreneur?

High

Entrepreneur

Inventor

CREATIVITY

AND

INNOVATION

Manager,

Administrator

Promoter

Low

High

GENERAL MANAGEMENT SKILLS, BUSINESS

KNOW-HOW, AND NETWORKS

fit of entrepreneur and venture capital
Fit of Entrepreneur and Venture Capital

High

Low

Potential for singles

or doubles, but many

strike out

Potential for triples

and home runs

ATTRACTIVENESS

OF VENTURE

OPPORTUNITY

Not hat and no cattle

Big hat, no cattle

High

Low

ENTREPRENEUR‘S FIT AND BALANCE

central issues in entrepreneurial finance
Central Issues in Entrepreneurial Finance

Shareholders

Value Creation

Customers

Employees

Allocating risks

and returns

Slicing the value pie

Cash-Risk-Time

Debt: Take control

Covering risk

Equity: Staged

commitments

dominant venture modes
Dominant Venture Modes

Seed/Startup

High Growth

Maturity

Most

Most

Higher potential,

growth-minded ventures

Higher potential,

growth-minded ventures

ENTREPRENEURIAL

CHANGE AND

UNCERTAINTY

Mature, bureaucratic dinosaurs

Lifestyle, Mom and Pop ventures

Least

Least

Least

Most

ADMINISTRATIVE

Entrepreneurial domain

Administrative domain

principle driving forces
Principle Driving Forces

Seed/Startup

High Growth

Maturity

Most

Most

Driven by:

Driven by:

  • Collaboration within the firm
  • Opportunity focus
  • Resource requirements expanding
  • Organization: Informal; fluid
  • Rejuvenators and innovators
  • Opportunity focus
  • Resource ownership
  • Organization: Formal

ENTREPRENEURIAL

CHANGE AND

UNCERTAINTY

Driven by:

Driven by:

  • Administration/trustees
  • Product focus
  • Resource ownership
  • Organization: Formal
  • Few owners
  • A specific product
  • Burdensome resource requirements
  • Organization: None or too rigid

Least

Least

Least

Most

ADMINISTRATIVE

Entrepreneurial domain

Administrative domain

financial strategy framework
Financial Strategy Framework

Opportunity

Financial strategy

Degrees of strategic freedom:

Time to OOC

Time to close

Future alternatives

Risk/Reward

Personal concerns

Sources and deal

structure

Dept

Equity

Other

Business strategy

Marketing

Operations

Finance

Value creation

Financial

requirements

Driven by:

Burn rate

Operating needs

Working capital

Asset requirements

and sales

the five tasks of strategic management
The Five Tasks of Strategic Management

Fund conception

Target investment opportunities

Raise capital for investment

Generate deal flow

New and young companies with

high potential

Fund conception

Target investment opportunities

Fund conception

Target investment opportunities

  • Add value via:
  • Strategy development
  • Acitve board membership
  • Attract outside expertise
  • Attract later round investors
  • Attract other stakeholders, management
  • Provide contacts, access to info, people, institutions

Typically

5 to 10 year

window

  • Craft and execute
  • exit strategies
  • Sale • Liquidation
  • IPO • Alliances
  • Merger
flows of venture capital
Flows of Venture Capital

Investors

Venture Capital Firms

Portfolio Companies

Use capital

Provide capital

  • Identity and screen opportunities
  • Transact and close deals
  • Monitor and add value
  • Harvest
  • Raise additional funds

MONEY

MONEY

Limited partners

Pension funds

Individuals

Corporations

Insurance companies

Foreign Endowments

Opportunity

Creation

recognition and

execution

2-3% ANNUAL FEE

General partners

15-25% of capital gains

IPOs/Mergers/Alliances

Entrepreneurs

Return of principal

plus 75-85% of

capital gain

Value-creation

and harvest

EQUITY

growth phases
Growth Phases

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 5

Phase 3

Phase 4

Large

5. Crisis of ?

4. Crisis of

RED TAPE

5. Growth through

COLLABORATION

3. Crisis of

CONTROL

4. Growth through

COORDINATION

SIZE OF

ORGANIZATION

2. Crisis of

AUTONOMY

3. Growth through

DELEGATION

1. Crisis of

LEADERSHIP

2. Growth through

DIRECTION

Evolution stages

Revolution stages

1. Growth through

CREATVITY

Small

Young

Mature

AGE OF ORGANIZATION

a way to think about potential
A Way to Think about Potential

Not Obvious

Black Holes

Home Runs

CONCEPT

Squirrel Cages

Filling Stations

Obvious

Small

Large

GROWTH / ULTIMATE FINANCIAL POTENTIAL

four archetypal structural approaches to coordination
Four Archetypal Structural Approaches to Coordination

High

Laissez-faire

Management

Professional

Management

DELEGATION OF

RESPONSIBILITY

Bureaucratic

Management

Entrepreneurial

Management

Low

Low

High

USE OF FORMAL CONTROL MECHANISMS

the technology adoption life cycle
The Technology Adoption Life Cycle
  • Innovators
  • Early Adopters
  • Early Majority
  • Late Majority
  • Laggards
  • Technology Enthusiasts
  • Visionaries
  • Pragmatists
  • Conservatives
  • Skeptics
the chasm
The Chasm

The

Chasm

The

Mainstream

Market

The Early

Market

Technology

Enthusiasts

Skeptics

Visionaries

Pragmatists

Conservatives

amar bidh framework
Amar Bidhé Framework

„Regular“

Start-ups

Promising

Revolutionary

High

VC Backed

Startups

UNCERTAINTY

Marginal

Corporate

Low

„Regular“

Corporation

Low

High

SCALE

Uncertainty: unqualifiable and immeasurable risk

Scale: expected total profit from opportunity

on innovation
On Innovation

Why do firms innovate?

Appropriability

(patent, secrecy...)

Novelty

Product

innovation

Escaping from

perfect competition

Consumers accept to

pay a higher price

Price > marginal cost

Monopoly rent

Economic

value

Rent X market share (trade off)

Monopoly rent

Price > marginal cost

Costs are decreasing

Escaping from

perfect competition

Process

innovation

Appropriability

(patent, secrecy...)

Novelty

framework for investigating the impact of innovation on growth and employment
Framework for Investigating the Impact of Innovation on Growth and Employment

TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE

Industry-specific opportunities for innovation in firms

Behavior of firms:

NON INNOVATING

FIRMS

FIRMS INNOVATING

MAINLY IN PROCESSES

FIRMS INNOVATING

MAINLY IN PRODUCTS

Innovative strategy

of firms:

No R&D and innov. exp.

Stable productivity

Cost savings,

low quality

Some R&D and innov. exp.

mainly for investment

Growing productivity

through restructuring

Defence of market shares

through cost reductions

High R&D and innov. exp.

mainly for new products

Growing productivity

through higher quality

Expans. of market share

Search for new markets

and monopoly profits

Competitive strategy:

Passive

price competitiveness

Active

price competitiveness

Technological

competitiveness

External conditions

of markets and demand:

Stagnant

Growing

Stagnant

Stagnant

Growing

Growing

Losing out to

competitors

Falling or stable

market shares

Stable or slow growing

market shares

(at the expense

of competitors)

Fast growing

market shares

Developm. of

new markets

Outcomes for the firm:

Strong fall of

value added

and employm.

Stable

value added,

falling employm.

with growth

of productivity

Slow growth of

value added, stable

employm. with growth

of productivity

Strong growth

of value added,

some employm.

growth

Outcomes for the industry:

types of lock in and types of switching costs
Types of Lock-In and Types of Switching Costs

Type of lock-in

Contractual commitments

Durable purchases

Brand-specific training

Information and data bases

Specialized suppliers

Search costs

Loyalty programs

Switching costs

Compensatory or liquidated damages

Replacement or equipment; tends to

decline as the durable ages

Learning a new system, both direct costs

and lost productivity; tends to decline as

people learn to learn

Converting data to new format; tends to

rise over time as collection grows

Funding of new supplier; may rise over

time if capabilities are hard to find

Combined buyer and seller search costs;

includes learning about quality of

alternatives

Any lost benefits from incumbent

supplier, plus need to rebuild cumulative

use

the transilience map
The Transilience Map

BREAKTHROUGH

Architectural

Niche creation

Technology

Market

Customers

Production

Revolutionary

Regular

CONTINUITY

organizational capabilities
Organizational Capabilities

C

A

B

SM

SM

SM

F1

F1

F2

F3

F4

F2

F3

F4

F1

F2

F3

F4

P1

P

P2

P

P3

Functional matrix

Balanced matrix

Functional

F

D

E

SM

SM

SM

P1

P1

P2

P3

P4

P2

P3

P4

P4

F1

F2

F1

P3

F3

P2

F4

F2

P1

F3

F4

Project-led

organization

Project-based

organization

Project matrix

a new kind of competition winner take all
A New Kind of Competition: Winner-Take-All

100

Winner

MARKET SHARE

(in %)

50

Battle zone

Loser

0

TIME

the classical diffusion curve
The Classical Diffusion Curve

Adoption Dynamics

Saturation

Takeoff

NUMBER

OF

USERS

Launch

TIME

positive feedback s should not be confused with growth
Positive Feedback\'s Should not be Confused with Growth

Popularity Adds Value in a Network Industry

Virtuous

cycle

VALUE

TO USER

Vicious

cycle

NUMBER OF COMPATIBLE USERS

the whole product model
The Whole Product Model

Potential Product

Augmented Product

Expected Product

Generic Product

the simplified whole product model
The Simplified Whole Product Model

Standards

and

Procedures

Additional

Software

Training

and

Support

Additional

Hardware

Anything else

you would need

to achieve your

compelling reason

to buy

Generic

Product

System

Integration

Cables

Installation

and

Debugging

the competitive positioning compass
The Competitive-Positioning Compass

SUPPORTERS

Product

Company

Visionaries

Conservative

Crossing

the Chasm

Developing the

Early Market

Developing the

Mainstream Market

SPECIALIST

GENERALIST

Technology

Enthusiasts

Pragmatist

Technology

Market

SKEPTICS

define the battle
Define the Battle

SUPPORTERS

  • Benchmarks
  • Product Reviews
  • Design wins
  • Initial sales volumes
  • Trade press coverage
  • Visionary endorsements
  • Revenues and profits
  • Strategic partners
  • Top tier customers
  • Full product line
  • Business press coverage
  • Financial analyst endorsements

Product

Company

SPECIALIST

GENERALIST

Technology

Market

  • Architecture
  • Schematics
  • Demos
  • Trials
  • Technology press coverage
  • Guru endorsements
  • Market share
  • Third party support
  • Standards certification
  • Applications proliferation
  • Vertical press coverage
  • Industry analyst endorsements

SKEPTICS

discontinuity and life cycle
Discontinuity and Life Cycle

High

Early Market

Prototypes

Pure

Science

Chasm

Visionaries

Technology

Enthusiasts

PARADIGM

SHOCK

Conservatives

Pragmatists

End of

Life

Bowling

Alley

Main Street

Low

Tornado

High

Low

APPLICATION

BREAKTHROUGH

development of technological entrepreneurial regions
Development of Technological Entrepreneurial Regions

Scientific/

Technical

Knowledge

Academic

Institutions

Technological

Enterprise

Venture Capital

Available Capital

Trained

Individuals

Service Enterprise

Growth

Economic &

Employment

Growth

Unsuccessful

Successful

Spin-Off

Enterprise

technological enterprise space
Technological Enterprise Space

High

TECHNOLOGY

Future

New

Low

MARKET

Emerging

Existing

Incremental

Radical

Existing

New Generation

INNOVATION

technological strategic planning model
Technological Strategic Planning Model
  • Evaluation of:
  • Organization‘s
  • - Strengths
  • - Weaknesses
  • Environmental
  • - Opportunities
  • - Threats
  • Core Competencies
  • Overall
  • Strategic Business
  • Units

Corporate Strategy

Vision, Objectives, Goals

Technological

Strategy

Action

Plan

  • Emerging
  • Technologies
  • Assessment
  • Technological
  • Forecast
  • Environmental
  • Analysis
  • Internal
  • External
knowledge creation pyramid
Knowledge Creation Pyramid

Competitive

Advantage

Continuous

Innovation

Knowledge

Creation

technology strategy risk return space
Technology Strategy Risk-Return Space

High

Cost

Reduction

Technology

Peripheral

Push

Pull

RETURN

Product Line

Extension

High

Trend

Expanding

Market

Low

Trend

Mature

Market

Low or

Negative

RISK

two dimensional technological space
Two-Dimensional Technological Space

Radical

New Generation

TECHNOLOGY

Incremental

Existing

Existing

Emerging

New

Future

MARKET

innovation feedback process
Innovation Feedback Process

Expertise

Technology, customers, markets,

expertise, patents, trademarks, trade

secrets

Invention

Implementation

Market

Penetration

Market space,

competitors, suppliers

Economic Power

nested enterprise strategy sets
Nested Enterprise Strategy Sets

Strategy

Mission

Vision

key elements of business and technological strategy domains
Key Elements of Business and Technological Strategy Domains

Business

Elements

Technology

Elements

Market

Forecasts

Technology

Forecasts

Programs

Enterprise

Objectives

Mission Space

Technological

Space

General Needs

Technologies

Specific

Requirements

Technological

Applications

Increasing Detail

Projects

Drives

Bounds

technological risk domain
Technological Risk Domain

High

RISK

Moderate

Low

Existing

Incremental

Improvement

New

Generation

Radical

TECHNOLOGY

trilogy of strategic technology decisions
Trilogy of Strategic Technology Decisions

Which Way to Go

Decision

Leadership Team

Technological Potential

Make or Buy

Decision

Keep or

Sell Decision

Technologies

Structures

Processes

Product, Process

or Service

System

Functions

$

relationship of needs core technologies and competencies
Relationship of Needs, Core Technologies and Competencies

Market Products,

Processes or Services

Needs

Core

Technologies

Technologies to

Meet Needs

Core

Competencies

Defining

Capabilities

strategic technology position
Strategic Technology Position

1

Core

Technology

Region

New

Technology

Vector

TECHNOLOGICAL

ATTRACTIVENESS

Aging

Technology

0

10

COMPETITIVE

TECHNOLOGICAL STRENGTHS

technological swot analysis diagram
Technological SWOT Analysis Diagram

Numerous

Enterprise

Environmental

Opportunities

Turnaround

Strategy

Aggressive

Strategy

Substantial

Enterprise

Technological

Strengths

Critical

Enterprise

Technological

Weaknesses

Defensive

Strategy

Diversification

Strategy

Major

Technological

Environmental

Threats

technological strategic clusters
Technological Strategic Clusters

Emerging technology

market with rapid growth

(„Go-for-it“)

(„Niche“)

II

I

Strong technological

competitive position

Weak technological

competitive position

III

IV

(„No-Go or

Change it“)

(„Partnering“)

Existing technology market with

slow to moderate growth

internal and external interactions for technological strategy development
Internal and External Interactions for Technological Strategy Development

External Environment

External Forces

Enterprise

Business Strategy

Differentiating

Capabilities

Competencies and

Technologies

Technological

Strategy

Organizational

Learning

Internal Culture

Enterprise Internal Environment

components of a competitive analysis
Components of a Competitive Analysis

What drives the

competition?

What the competition is

doing and can do?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

Future

Goals

Current

Strategy

Competitor‘s

Response Profile

Strengths

Weaknesses

Threats

Opportunity

Assumptions

Held about itself

and the industry

Capabilities

Strengths and

weaknesses

impact of competitive advantage
Impact of Competitive Advantage

SIZE OF TECHNOLOGICAL

COMPETITVE ADVANTAGE

Small

Large

Volume

Stalemate

ROI

ROI

Few

NUMBER OF WAYS

TO ACHIEVE

TECHNOLOGICAL

COMPETITIVE

ADVANTAGE

Market share

Market share

Technological

Competitive

Differentiation

Specialization

Fragmented

ROI

ROI

Many

Market share

Market share

Barriers of Entry to

Technological Market Space

first mover advantage model
First Mover Advantage Model

Environmental Opportunity

Attractiveness

Competitive

Strategy

  • First-Mover
  • Distinctive Competencies
  • Resources
  • Later-Entrant
  • Distinctive Competencies
  • Resources

Competitive

Strategy

First-Mover Positional Advantages

CostDifferentiation

  • Later-Entrant
  • Advantages
  • Imitation Costs
  • Free-Rider Effects
  • Scope Economics
  • Learning from
  • Pioneer‘s Mistakes

Pre-emption

Factors

Technological

Factors

Behavioral

Factors

Economic

Factors

Demand

Uncertainty

Pre-emptive

Investment

Technological

Innovation

Characteristics

Nature of Good

Entry

Scale

Product

Characteristics

Technological

Change &

Discontinuity

Market Type

Efficient

Scale-to-

Market Size

Market

Evolution

Advertising

Intensity

Buyer‘s

Investment in

Cospecialized

Assets

Response

Time

Scope

Economies

Overall Magnitude of First-Mover Advantage

  • Market Share Performance
  • Absolute
  • Relative
  • Profitability Performance
  • Return on Assets
  • Return on Sales
financing life cycle
Financing Life Cycle

Venture

Capitalist

Investment Banks &

Banks

FFF & Angels

Early

Growth

Later

Growth

Seed Capital

& Early Stage

Enterprise

Cash Flow

Enterprise

Financing

Mezzanine

Public

Market

3rd

2nd

Initial

Public

Offering

1st

Time

Valley

of Death

Break-even

point

Emerging Growth

break even regions
Break-Even Regions

Cash flow

Returned capital

breakeven

Cumulative revenue

Cash flow breakeven

$

EVA breakeven

Opportunity cost based on

capital risk assumed

P&L breakeven

financial strategy framework51
Financial Strategy Framework

Due dilligence process

Investor Investment strategy

Alternative Investments

Time to close deal

Risk/Reward Space

Financial Strategy

Opportunity

Debt

Entrepreneurial concerns

Sources and Deal

Structure

Time to out of cash

Equity

Future alternatives

Other

Burn Rate

Financial

Requirements

Business Strategy

Operating

Requirements

Working Capital

Market Strategy

Technological Strategy

Asset Requirement

financing space
Financing Space

Highest cost for

enterprise

Highest risk for investors

but lower potential risk to

enterprise

Stock

Preferred

stock

Lowest risk for

investors but highest

potential risk to

enterprise

Options

Subordinated

Debt

Lowest cost

for enterprise

RISK PLANE

Senior Debt

COST PLANE

investor perceived risk return space
Investor Perceived Risk-Return Space

Angels

High

FFF

VCs

Entrepreneur

PERCEIVED

RETURN

Moderate

Realistic

Investors

Banks

Low

Low

Moderate

High

PERCEIVED RISK

technological risk return space
Technological Risk-Return Space

High

RISK

Moderate

High

Moderate

RETURN

Low

Low

Incremental

Radical

Existing

New Generation

TECHNOLOGY

technological market risk space
Technological Market Risk Space

High

Moderate

RISK

New

MARKET

DEVELOPMENT

STAGE

Low

Developing

Existing

Low

Moderate

High

POTENTIAL

MARKET GROWTH

enterprise risk return space
Enterprise Risk-Return Space

100

80

ANNUAL

RETURN

(%)

60

40

20

High

Moderate

RISK

0

Low

Seed &

Early Stage

Early

Growth

Later

Growth

Buy-out

or IPO

Mezzanine

ENTERPRISE

STAGE

davenport s investment risk return space
Davenport’s Investment Risk-Return Space

100

Data from

Venture

Capitalist

80

Davenport‘s Risk/

Return Space

60

EXPECTED

ANNUAL

RETURN

(%)

40

20

0

Low

Moderate

Risky

Most

Risky

INVESTMENT RISK

new enterprise growth space
New Enterprise Growth Space

Ability to Grow

Life-style

High-growth

Low

Propensity for Growth

Marginal

Successful

and

growing

High

three dimensional technological management model
Three-Dimensional Technological Management Model

Management skills

Management roles

SKILLS &

EXPERTISE

Critical functions

Managerial functions

Functional Management

Technology buildup

Preproject

Resources

Procedures

Structure

Strategy

Culture

Project

ASSETS

Production

PROCESSES

Marketing

Service

internal external technology acquisition model
Internal-External Technology Acquisition Model

Technology Relatedness

Degree of Competitiveness

Decision

Mechanism

Core Enterprise Technology

Degree of Protection

Managerial Capabilities

Life of Technology

Enterprise Experience with External Technology

External

Technology

Acquisition

technology leadership space
Technology Leadership Space

Life

style

focus

Team

focus

High

HUMAN

RESOURCES

ORIENTATION

Public Enterprise

Growth

Authority

focus

DEVELOPMENT

STAGE

Unfocused

Low

Early Stage

Start-up

Low

High

GROWTH ORIENTATION

enterprise management process
Enterprise Management Process

Decision

Process

Enterprise

Structure

Mission &

Strategy

Customer

Satisfaction

Value

Improvement

Enterprise

Learning

Benchmarking

the 7 elements overview
The 7 Elements Overview

Focus on

customer

benefits –

not on customer

Strategic

framework

Controlling of

project portfolio

(innovation

controlling)

Fast

project

realization

Management

of pre-project

phase

Tools

(methods)

Create innovative

environment

technological challenges
Technological Challenges

Managing the

CREATION of Technology

Managing the

USE of Technology

  • Managing organizational response
  • to the introduction of rapidly
  • changing technologies e.g.:
  • Identifying and using IT
  • Using technology for new
  • services
  • Managing highly skilled
  • technologists to create new
  • technologies e.g.:
  • Managing R&D labs
  • Marketing high-tech products

Rapidly

Changing

Technologies

  • Developing organizations that can
  • make the most efficient and cost-
  • effective use of established
  • technologies e.g.:
  • Labor-intensive retailing and
  • service organizations
  • Managing the most efficient and
  • cost-effective creation of new
  • products e.g.:
  • World-class, low-tech
  • manufacturing
  • Consumer-oriented prod. design
  • & marketing

Slowly

Changing

Technologies

timing and impact of management attention and influence
Timing and Impact of Management Attention and Influence

Knowledge

Acquisition

Concept

Investigation

Basic

Design

Prototype

Building

Pilot

Production

Manufacturing

Ramp-Up

PHASES

High

Ability

to Influence

Outcome

INDEX OF

ATTENTION

AND INFLUENCE

Actual

Management Activity

Profile

Low

priority issues in technology and innovation management
Priority Issues in Technology and Innovation Management

GROWING

IMPORTANCE

200

Linking Technology

to Business

Building

Seamless

Innovation

Processes

180

160

Changing Culture

and Values in R&D

140

IMPORTANCE

LEVEL

(NEXT 5 YEARS)

Building/Leveraging

Competences

120

100

Managing for

R&D Efficiency

Managing R&D

in a Global World

80

60

Rethinking

Technology Management

DECLINING

IMPORTANCE

40

40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

IMPORTANCE LEVEL (PAST 5 YEARS)

technological progress i
Technological Progress I

Base

Technology

Key

Technology

PERFORMANCE

OF THE

TECHNOLOGY

Pacemaker

Technology

CUMMULATED R&D SPENDING

technological progress ii
Technological Progress II

Higher

Potential

PERFORMANCE

OF THE

TECHNOLOGY

New

Technology

Old

Technology

CUMMULATED R&D SPENDING

core competencies open markets difficult to imitate
Core Competencies: Open Markets, Difficult to Imitate

Processes

Core

Competencies

Technologies

Capabilities

core competencies market and resources
Core Competencies: Market and Resources

Low Company View High

Competency 1

Competency 5

Competency 4

Low Market View High

Competency 6

Competency 2

Competency 3

a consumer products competency map
A Consumer Products Competency Map

Customer

Care

Core Competency

Trade

Partnering

Service

Excellence

End Customer

Delight

Capabilities

Space and

Replenishment

Management

Electronic

Data

Interchange

Trade

Marketing

Service

Innovation

Expectation

Trend

Management

Delight and

Loyalty

Measurement

Processes

Category

Management

Space

Management

Promo

Management

Sub-Processes

Customer

„Partners“

Customer

Database

Resources

technology portfolio 5 generic strategies
Technology Portfolio: 5 Generic Strategies

Pilot project

Investing

Optimizing

STRATEGIC

RELEVANCE

Observation

Desinvesting

TECHNOLOGICAL MATURITY/

STRENGTH (INTERNAL VIEW)

platforms link technology and market
Platforms Link Technology and Market

INTEGRATION OF MARKET AND TECHNOLOGIES

VIA PRODUCT PLATFORM

Technologies

Technical

core competencies

Product

platforms

„Market-

Information

flow“

„Technology

flow“

Product groups

Individual products

Market segments

Customer needs

platforms management focus
Platforms: Management Focus

Vision

TODAY

IN THE PAST

Platforms

Product family

Individual products

value vs volume
Value vs. Volume

Value

Decisions

Knowledge

Information

Volume

Data

innovation distinctive capability competitive advantage
Innovation & Distinctive Capability = Competitive Advantage

Innovation

Secret

Strategy

Patent

Sony Walkman

Valium

Coke

Competitive

Advantage

a model of a knowledge company
A Model of a Knowledge Company

INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

Human

Resources

Intellectual

Assets

STRUCTUAL CAPITAL

a model of intellectual capital
A Model of Intellectual Capital

Human

Resources

Intellectual

Assets

Intellectual

Property

the intellectual capital of the firm
The Intellectual Capital of the Firm

Human Capital

Experiences

Know-how

Skills

Creativity

Intellectual Assets

Documents

Drawings

Programs

Data

Inventions

Processes

Intellectual Property

Patents

Copyrights

Trademarks

Trade Secrets

Semiconductor Masks

knowledge management strategies
Knowledge Management Strategies

Unfocused Strategy

Focused Strategy

Codification Strategy

Increase the absolute level of codification

across all dimensions of codification and

knowledge.

For each type of organizational knowledge

decrease the level of codification on those

dimensions of codification which transfer

knowledge fastest and most accurately.

Tacitness Strategy

Decrease the absolute level of

codification across all dimensions of

codification and organizational

knowledge.

For each type of organizational knowledge

decrease the level of codification on those

dimensions of codification which pose

greatest risks of involuntary transfer of

knowledge.

intellectual property management
Intellectual Property Management

Patent selling,

buying, licensing

Defending

Patents

Identification of

Patent weaknesses

Infringement of

Patents

Work with external

Patent Consultants

Intellectual

Property Management

Patent analysis for

technology trends

Patent strategy

Patent search

Patent abstracts

Patent Mapping

with competitors‘

patents

Brain Maps

Key Know How holder maps

(competitors)

Patent

writing

positioning and evaluating assets
Positioning and Evaluating Assets

Technology Push

Technology Risk

Clear

Extension

for

Eastman

Existing Business

MARKETS

Known to

Industry

Market Push

Market Risk

Unknown

Market to

World

Technology

& Market Push-

Large Risk

Incremental

for Eastman

New to Eastman

New to the World

TECHNOLOGY TYPE

separate pre project and implementation open vs tight
Separate Pre-project and Implementation: Open vs. Tight

Concept and planning

Implementation

Project

planning

Specs and business plan

Detailed specs

Market &

Product concept

etc.

Generation of ideas

Prototype

Detail Design

Freezing Point /

Release of

tools any jigs

Potential influence

Product specifications

and costs

Structured processes

Few structured activities

types of innovation cost of change is important
Types of Innovation: Cost of Change is Important

High

Aircraft

turbines

Software

Multimedia

electronics

Cars

TECHNOLOGY

INTENSITY

New restaurant

concept

Cosmetics

Low

Low

High

COSTOF ENGINEERING CHANGE AT LATE STATE

selection of the right project organization
Selection of the Right Project Organization

Coordination

(Lightweight team)

Team

(Heavyweight team)

Functional

Task-Force

+

  • Clear priority
  • Rapid
  • Specialists
  • Specialists
  • Coordination
  • Management
  • Rapid

_

  • Subculture
  • Spec know-how
  • Slow
  • Big control circ
  • Slow
  • Project leader
  • difficult position
  • Line / Project

Integration

Pressure of time

Fire brigade

New business

Stable environment

indicators of horizontal relations between core firms
Indicators of Horizontal Relations Between Core Firms

Position of the other

Independent

with

Influence

Interdependent

Dependent

without

Influence

Independent

Dependent

with

Influence

Compliance

Coalition

Structural

Control

Cooperation

or Competition

Direct

Control

One directional technology flow

(second sourcing, licensing)

Attitude of

core firm

System integration

(common standards)

Controlling (minority)

share in core firm

Technology/patent exchange

(cross-licensing, technology share)

Joint R&D (research, pacts,

joint development)

Production consortium and/or

cartel (joint production)

Merger, Joint Venture (50/50)

Direct investment,

minority share

Acquisition

OEM agreement

Distribution

five major trends drive the evolution of r d organization
Five Major Trends Drive the Evolution of R&D Organization

Polycentric

decentralized

R&D

Integrated

R&D Network

Synergy

Decentral

R&D

Competences

R&D Hub

Model

Costs

Tapping

Ethnocentric

centralized

R&D

Geocentric

centralized

R&D

Central

R&D

External

Orientation

Cooperation

Competition

survey of r d tools
Survey of R&D Tools

Product = Process Planning

Product = Process Realization

Production

Ideas

Strategy

Product

program

Concept

Goals

Development

Integration

and test

Introduction

Pilot

lot

Target Costing

Marketing information system

Cost reduction for existing products

Cost management for suppliers

Quality Function Deployment

Creativity techniques

Statistical Process Control

Failure Mode and Effect Analyses

Conjoint Analysis

Design for ...

Computer aided ...

Database-, Simulation-, Expert Systems

Design of Experiments

the kano model
The Kano Model

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

Excitement

Performance

DEGREE

OF

ACHIEVEMENT

Basic

new product from the pipeline market and competence driven
New Product from the Pipeline - Market and Competence Driven
  • Corporate Strategies
  • Navigator Book
  • Corporate Product Strategy
  • Market
  • Requirements
  • Field Operations
  • Customers

Market

Pull

Product

Management

Product

Creation

Process

New

Products

  • Core
  • Competencies
  • Skills
  • Technologies
  • Resources

Technology

Management

Technology

Push

  • Product Planning
  • Harmonization with Field Operations
  • Resources Check
  • Idea Backlog
the core competence process actions are important
The Core Competence Process: Actions are Important!

Identification of actual

Core Competencies

Technology Forecasting

Market Strategy

Definition of Future

Core Competencies

Evaluation of

Technology Portfolio

Gap-Analysis

Actions

Road Maps,

R&D projects

Resource

Allocation

R&D

Organization

Human

Resources

Outsourcing

portfolio of technical competencies
Portfolio of Technical Competencies

High

  • Pilot project
  • Strategic impact is recognized
  • Pilot projects with scantly budgets,
  • „High-Risk-High-Impact“-Projects
  • External partner helps to build up
  • internal competence
  • Invest
  • Long-term investments within
  • core competencies
  • ROI must be lined up in the
  • long term, short-term success
  • rather not possible
  • Optimize
  • Core Competence, but strategic
  • impact is medium or rather
  • decreasing
  • ROI should be lined up in the
  • short term

STRATEGIC

IMPACT

  • Observation
  • No budget available
  • Technology-owner is responsible
  • Visit exhibitions, congresses
  • Study magazines
  • Cooperation with universities
  • Desinvestment
  • No competitive advantages
  • within the next 5 or 10 years
  • Resources should decrease
  • and be freed for new
  • technology potentials

Low

Low

High

INTERNAL RESOURCES

tasks of it in dispersed r d teams
Tasks of IT in Dispersed R&D Teams

Rational Level:

Information richness

Emotional Level:

Social Presence

INFORMATION –

EXCHANGE

Explicit

Knowledge

high

COORDINATION

SUPPORT

high

CREATIVITY –

PROMOTION

low

high

high

Tacit

Knowledge

DEVELOPMENT OF

INFORMAL NETWORK

project categories market technologies
Project Categories: Market / Technologies

Variants

High

New platform /

new core product

Variants

New

product line /

improved platform

RELEVANCE FOR NEW

MARKETS / MARKET

SEGMENT

Variants

Low

Low

High

INTRODUCTION OF

NEW TECHNOLOGIES

a balanced portfolio the risk reward diagrams
A Balanced Portfolio - The Risk-Reward Diagrams

High

Bread and Butter

Pearls

PROBABILITY OF

TECHNICAL SUCCESS

0

10M

REWARD (NPV)

White Elephants

(difficult to kill)

Oysters

Low

market and technology risk bubble diagram
Market and Technology Risk Bubble Diagram

Very high

MARKET

RISK

Moderate

Very low

Moderate

Very high

Very low

TECHNOLOGY RISK

rohm and haas strategic intent bubble diagram
Rohm and Haas - Strategic Intent Bubble Diagram

Project A

Food/Pharm

Project B

Sugar

Project D

Project C

Cat/Chem

Process

Project F

MARKET

SEGMENTS

Nuclear

Drink Water

Industrial

Water

Project E

Other

Defend

Grow

New

Application

New

Business

Fundamental

STRATEGIC INTENT

the new business enthusiasm curve
The New Business Enthusiasm Curve

Costs are

better

The field

trail worked

They

like it

We have

an order!

Ecstasy

Yes

it is!

and orders

and the

approvals

The

customers

like it!

New costs

look great

and inventory

We‘ll

make it

It

works!

Documentation

done!

We have all

the sizes

We have

a fix

Installation

problem!

Costs are

too high

It

works!

We need

documentation

It‘s not

proprietary

It

doesn‘t

always

No, he

loves it

They

need

all the

sizes

Deliveries

are late

Sounds great

The market

estimate

was wrong

We don‘t

have enough

resources

„Serveral“

failures

reported

I have an idea

Despair

We need help

Time

Failures in

field trail

The boss hates

the project

possible timeline for transmission technology evolution

PDC

Personal Digital Cellular

W-CDMA

Wideband CDMA

Japan

UTMS

Universal Mobile Telecommunications

System (same as W-CDMA)

GSM

Global System for Mobile communication

GPRS

Global Packet Radio Service

Europe

EDGE

Enhanced Data rates for

Global Evolution

TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access

USA

CDMA 2000

CDMA 3G Standard

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access

upgrade

1998

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

1997

1999

2 G

2.5 G

3 G

Key:

Possible Timeline for Transmission Technology Evolution
the virtual marketplace model

B2B Marketplace

Buyer 1

Platform 1

Seller 1

Buyer 2

Platform 2

Seller 2

Buyer 3

Platform 3

Buyer 4

Seller 3

Platform 4

Seller 4

Infomediary: Multiple buyers to multiple sellers

Competitive bidding: Auction / Exchange / Reverse auction / Grouped buying

The Virtual Marketplace Model
illustrative map of e enabled business processes

E-

procurement

Online

R&D

E-shop

Online

construction

facilitator

E-monitoring

  • Suppliers:
  • Energy
  • Equipment
  • Non-core
  • products

E-trading

Information

Exchanger

  • Customers:
  • Large
  • Small/Medium
  • Residential

online

billing

E-trans-

mission

control

Online

Meter reading

Risk

manager

online

Idea web-

generator

Online

Customer

Service

Finance

ASP

B2E

Illustrative Map of E-Enabled Business Processes
illustrative map of e business models in part of traditional value chain

E-

procurement

E-mail

Market

forecaster

Network

Negotiation

Retail

market

place

Marketing

Sales

Network

companies

Customers:

Aggregator

Capacity

broker

Risk

management

Billing

Value chain

integrator

Sale agt

price

comparer

Energy

producers

Energy

purchasing

E-trade &

auctions

Product

development

Customer

Service

Energy

saver

Consumption

analyst

Virtual

Community

Illustrative Map of E-Business Models in Part of Traditional Value Chain
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