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1876-1918 Domestic-1. The West The Do-Nothing Presidents Organized Labor The Populists The Progressives. The West.

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1876-1918 Domestic-1

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1876 1918 domestic 1

1876-1918Domestic-1

The West

The Do-Nothing Presidents

Organized Labor

The Populists

The Progressives


The west

The West

  • Manifest Destiny It took several generations of Europeans and Americans to settle from Atlantic to Mississippi but only one generation to conquer from Mississippi to the Pacific

  • Mid-1840’s on big interest in the West

    • MinersRailroadsIndian Policy

    • FarmersWarK-N Act

    • RanchersLand PolicyRomance


Romance of the west

Romance of the West

  • Transcendentalists and “Natural Man”

    The Cowboy?

  • James Fenimore Cooper

  • Mark Twain Roughing It

  • Oliver Wister The Virginian

  • “The Turner Thesis”


The gilded age

The Gilded Age

  • Materialism (Twain)

  • Karl Marx Das Kapital1859

    Frightening (especially to property owners!)

  • Darwin The Origin of Species 1859

    Religious upset: Modernists v Fundamentalists


Social darwinism

Social Darwinism

  • Herbert Spencer and William Sumner

  • “Survival of the fittest” as applied to:

    • Native Peoples

    • Industry


The native americans

The Native Americans

  • Helen Hunt JacksonA Century of Dishonor

  • Eastern tribes had been relocated to West of the Mississippi

  • Far Western Tribes and the Spanish:

    Prior to Spanish settlement, 300,000

    By 1850 pop down to 150,000


The plains indians

The Plains Indians

  • Uniform culture: Hunters, warriors

  • BUT diverse language, tribal conflict

  • Depended on the Buffalo

  • Biggest disadvantage: inability to unify

  • Problems: RR’s, Farmers, Ranchers, Miners, government policy, disappearing Buffalo and Social Darwinism


The indians continued

The Indians continued

  • California Loitering Laws

  • Mining: the Black Hills

    • Moved to reservation in Black Hills 1872

    • Gold discovered 1874

    • Slaughter

    • Custer’s last stand at Little Big Horn River

    • Custer attacked 2,000+ with 264…


The indians

The Indians

  • 1851 Thomas Fitzpatrick (government Indian Agent)

  • called for a conference at Horse Creek (near Laramie, Wyoming)

  • 10,000 came…treaties supporting Policy of Concentration


The treaties

The Treaties

  • By 1860 Indians has lost 17.5 million acres in Kansas and Nebraska “protected” by treaties

  • 1854 Colorado Gold Rush

  • 1864 Chivington Massacre (133 killed 105 women and children)

  • “Kill them all’ big and little. Nits make lice.”


Plains indians continued

Plains Indians continued

  • After 1862, constant warfare on the Plains

  • Sherman: “One Indian could check 50 Union soldiers”

  • Cost $2,000,000 per killed Indian


Apaches 1860 80 s

Apaches 1860-80’s

  • Mangas to mid 1860’s

  • Cochise to 1872

  • Geranimo to 1886

  • 1887 Dawes Severalty Act: The U.S. government no longer treated the tribe as sovereign

    • 160 acres to adult heads of households, etc


The dawes act

The Dawes Act

  • BUT to protect natives from cheating white guys: would not get the deed to the land for 25 years

  • The Natives could not seem to thrive outside of the tribe so wandered off of the land

  • 1906 The Burke Act


Buffalo

Buffalo

  • Mid-1860’s 13-15 Million on the Plains

    Then: RR workers, Buffalo Bill Cody, Buffalo rugs popular in the East

    By 1871 down to 9 million

    By 1881 almost extinct


Indians

Indians

  • Between 1890-1910 Total Indian population down to 250,000

  • 1917 First time in 50 years Indian births exceeded Indian deaths

  • 1924 All Native-born Indians were granted U.S. citizenship, but many denied the right to vote until after 1954


Mexico

Mexico

  • Border not regulated until WWI

  • Railroad to SW U.S. by 1880’s

  • Californios: former Hispanic landlords

  • Lost political and economic power to U.S. settlers

  • Mexican-Americans became increasingly impoverished


The land acts

The Land Acts

  • 1862Homestead Act

  • 1873Timber Culture Act

  • 1878Timber and Stone Act

  • 1877Desert Land Act

  • The 100th Meridian and El Nino

  • Life on the Plains (Oh, the horror!)


Mining the first economic boom of the west 1860 1890

Mining: the first economic boom of the West 1860-1890

  • James MarshallSutter’s Mill, Ca. 1848

    • 49ers

  • Nevada Comstock Lode Ophin Mine: Silver

  • Gold and silver everywhere

  • Mining towns:

    • DeadwoodVirginia City

    • LeadvilleAbilene

    • Dodge City


The west people

The West: people

  • Wild Bill Hickock

  • Calamity Jane

  • Poker Alice

  • Deadwood Dick

  • Vigilantes

  • Guns

  • Native Americans


The cowboy 1867 1887

The Cowboy: 1867-1887

  • First Union Officers

  • Then Black Freedmen

    • Exodusters

  • Ranching: Second Economic Boom of the West

  • Texas Longhorn Steer: Chisholm Trail, etc.

  • Barbed Wire 1874


The government

The Government

  • Congress evenly divided between Democrats and Republicans (last quarter of the 19th century)

    • Biggest election issue: The Tariff

  • Democrats still opposed

  • Republicans still protectionists


The republican party and its factions

The Republican Partyand its factions

  • Stalwarts (led by Conkling) interested in what is good for New England

  • Halfbreeds (led by Blaine) aka Liberals aka Radicals: Claimed to want civil service reform

  • Both above equally corrupt; just different faction leaders


The mugwumps

The Mugwumps

  • By the 1880’s a third faction in the Republican Party: The Mugwumps

  • They were independent Republicans willing to desert the party to vote for an honest man

  • They will be a factor in Cleveland’s (Dem) election in 1884


The presidents

The Presidents

  • 1877 Hayes (Rep) Compromise of 1877

  • 1880 Garfield: deal to get Rep. nomination:

    • VP Arthur (Stalwart)

    • Sec. of State Blaine (Halfbreed)

  • July 2, 1881 Garfield shot by Charles Guiteau. “I am a Stalwart. Now Arthur is President!”


The presidents continued

The Presidents continued

  • 1881Arthur (R) 1883 Pendleton Act

  • 1884 Cleveland (D) v Blaine (R)

  • Ugly campaign

  • Albany Register “A Terrible Tale”

  • The Mugwumps made a difference

  • Blaine suspected of RR fraud


The presidents continued1

The Presidents continued

  • 1884Cleveland

  • First Democrat Since Civil War

  • Only President to serve 2 nonconsecutive terms

  • Added Dept. of Labor

  • Wanted a lower tariff but gov’t control of RR’s

  • Panic 1893, Gold Drain, Strikes, Coxey’s Rebellion


The presidents continued2

The Presidents continued

  • 1888 Benjamin Harrison R (beat Cleveland because Party Boss System in NY blocked Cleveland)

  • Issue: The Tariff

  • BUT after the 1890 McKinley Tariff, economy went sour so

  • 1892 Cleveland D again


The presidents continued3

The Presidents continued

  • 1896 McKinley R v Bryan

    • Issue was Inflation through free Silver

    • McKinley not a do-nothing but more involved in foreign affairs than domestic issues

  • Reelected 1900

    • Shot by Leon Czolcocz

  • Teddy Roosevelt (McKinley’s VP) Progressive Republican


Immigration

Immigration

  • The Chinese and the Railroads

  • RR’s put pressure on the Government to help get more Chinese workers into the U.S.

  • 1868 Anson-Burlingame Act: expedited the process of getting Chinese workers to the West in spite of Rising nativism

  • THEN by 1869 most RR’s completed


Chinese immigration

Chinese Immigration

  • Rising Nativism in SW

  • Demand for end to Chinese immigration

  • 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act No more immigrants to U.S. from China and those who were already here could not become naturalized citizens


European immigration

European Immigration

  • Before 1880 most coming to U.S. were from Northern or Western Europe

    • Most Protestant

    • Most assimilated well

  • THEN a huge influx from Eastern and Southern Europe

    • Catholic, poorer, illiterate, failed to assimilate well


European immigration1

European Immigration

  • Immigrants from S and E Europe drove down wages, undermined unions

  • Rising Nativism

  • Demand that government restrict immigration

  • BUT industry depended upon cheap labor

  • AND Government was influenced by Big Business


1876 1918 domestic 1

  • The Biggest Threat to American Democracy in the last quarter of the 19th century was the influence that Big Business had on Government


The party boss system

The Party Boss System

  • Corruption in Government was everywhere

  • The Party Boss system contributed:

  • The Tweed Ring in New York

  • The Pendergast machine in Missouri

  • The Daley family in Chicago

  • Often you had to be a member to rise in politics


The political machine

The Political Machine

  • Usually the “Boss” had a low-profile, middle management job (like Boss Tweed)

  • BUT no one was elected to office or won a contract or got a franchise without the Boss’s OK.

  • The Party Boss and his system took care of immigrant families who were just off of the boat and kept them alive. The government and religious groups did not


The party boss system1

The Party Boss System

  • The Boss could deliver votes to a candidate because the immigrant workers were so grateful for the help they received when they first arrived, that by the time they were voting citizens, they would vote how the Boss wanted (early and often)

  • Likewise, the Boss got the funds to help the immigrants from bribes and kickbacks (candidates and those who wanted city contracts)


The immigrants and the american dream

The Immigrants and The American Dream

  • The belief that the roads in America were paved with gold and that if only one worked hard and kept out of trouble, a comfortable life would result was perpetuated by:

  • Horatio Alger Stories

  • But Theodore Drieser in An American Tragedywas more accurate


Late 19 th century industrialism

Late 19th Century Industrialism

  • 1866 Cyrus Field: First Transatlantic Cable

  • 1870’s Bell: Telephone

  • 1890’s Marconi: Radio

  • 1868 Sholes: Typewriter

  • 1879 Ritty: Cash Register

  • 1891 Burroughs: Adding Machine

  • 1870’s Edison and Westinghouse: electric power


Industry

Industry

  • 1850’s Two new processes developed to turn Iron into Steel:

    • Bessemer

    • Open Hearth

  • Bissel Oil for lubrication (later for fuel)

  • 1870’s Chas. and Frank Duryea: First gasoline-driven motor vehicle

  • 1906 Ford 1st motor car on the road


Industry1

Industry

  • 1910 Automobile was a major industry

  • 1917 % million on the road

  • Taylorism: The Science of Production

  • 1903 Wright Brothers

  • BUT world-wide overproduction!


Industry and agriculture

Industry and Agriculture

  • Chilled Iron Plow

  • Better harvesters, combines

  • Farmers were producing more and making less


The railroads

The Railroads

  • By 1870 49 million acres of land given to the RR companies

  • 75% of it to the 4 largest RR co’s

  • The Pacific Railway Act set the precedent

    • For every mile of track laid, the government would give the RR co. 5 square miles on either side of the track (in a checkerboard pattern in long strips interrupted with government land so the RR would not turn around and sell the land to homesteaders.)


The railroad continued

The Railroad continued

  • The Government paid subsidies, bonuses, etc. as incentive so safety concerns were ignored.

  • The Westinghouse air brake made larger trains possible

  • Pullman sleeping cars were introduced

  • 1870’s 52,000 miles of track

  • 1890 166,700 miles of track


Railroads continued

Railroads continued

  • By 1890 Government annual revenue

    = $403 million

  • Same year, RR’s annual revenue was over

    $1 billion

    BIG BUSINESS WAS THE CHIEF THREAT TO DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT.


Who had the money

Who had the money?

  • Before the Civil War there were few millionaires

  • By 1882, over 4,000

  • By the end of the 19th century:

    • 1% of corporations controlled 33% of American manufacturing

    • 1% of American families controlled 88% of American assets


The robber barons

The Robber Barons

  • NOTE: Most were not self-made

  • Only Carnegie was rags to riches

  • Vanderbilt (New York Central RR)

  • Gould (RR’s in SW)

  • J.P. Morgan (Banking, RR’s, U.S. Steel)

  • Carnegie (Carnegie Steel)

  • Rockefeller (Oil)


Carnegie

Carnegie

  • Ran a successful ferry business

  • Then bought into steamships

  • Then into Railroads

    • Built the NY Central

    • First to offer a direct route from NY to Chicago


Gould

Gould

  • A competitor of Vanderbilt’s in the East

  • Vanderbilt drove Gould out

  • Gould began anew with railroads in SW part of US

  • History with Grant and gold certificates

  • Was bankrupted with Panic of 1873


J p morgan

J.P. Morgan

  • Was from a very wealthy banking family

  • Bought up bankrupted RR’s after Panic of 1873 and ended up owning ½ of RR’s in the U.S.

  • Deal with Cleveland: loaned the U.S. government gold in exchange for the ability to purchase government bonds at a fraction of their value


J p morgan continued

J.P. Morgan continued

  • Sold the bonds at market value and made yet another fortune

  • Purchased Carnegie Steel and created U.S. Steel


Andrew carnegie

Andrew Carnegie

  • Was self-made

  • Began in a cotton factory

  • Then worked in a telegraph office

  • Then bought some land

  • Oil was found on the land (but at that time oil was not being used as a fuel…However it was valuable as a lubricant for machinery, etc.)

  • Sold the land and started Carnegie Steel


Carnegie continued

Carnegie continued

  • He sold Carnegie Steel to J.P. Morgan

  • Became a philanthropist

  • Wrote The Gospel of Wealth

  • Philosophy: The wealthy had an obligation to provide others with opportunities to improve their lives.

  • Much Carnegie $’s went to scholarships


Rockefeller

Rockefeller

  • Was an upper middle class bookkeeper

  • Also a Sunday School teacher

  • Was hired by a group of businessmen to investigate the possibility of using oil for fuel. They were looking for a place to invest some $

  • He took their money and investigated.


Rockefeller1

Rockefeller

  • He reported back that there was NO WAY oil could be profitable used as a source of fuel

  • Then…Standard Oil

  • Eventually 98% of the oil refining capacity in the U.S.

  • “Let Us Prey”


Trusts

Trusts

  • Vertical: owning all aspects of an industry

  • Carnegie Steel owned the iron mine, the rr that brought the Iron ore to the plant and he owned the plant

  • Horizontal: owning one industry in a large region or geographical area

  • Vanderbilt: ruled RR’s in NE


Trusts1

Trusts

  • Standard Oil: both vertical and horizontal

  • Pooling arrangements: a conspiracy to fix prices…did not work because there was no legal recourse for the party who would break the arrangement

  • Dodd invented the Trust (Lawyer for Rockefeller)


Trusts2

Trusts

  • Since it was illegal in most states for a corporation to own another corporation in another state, Dodd (a lawyer for Rockefeller) came up with the idea of the Trust

  • The Trust was a way to get around the state laws..The Trust would buy up the stock of all the corporations so stockholders would own stock indirectly


The trust

The Trust

  • Most states had laws preventing a corporation in one state from owning others in other states

  • New Jersey “Mother of Trusts” got rid of this law so that more corporations would based themselves in NJ and NJ would have more corporate taxes…so the Trus was no longer needed


The supreme court

The Supreme Court

  • 1911 The Supreme Court ruled that Standard Oil be broken up BUT it made no difference because Rockefeller was the major stockholder in the smaller companies…


Cleveland

Cleveland

  • Cleveland’s Sec. of the Navy married into the Rockefeller family and bought Carnegie Steel at inflated prices with government $ to build ships

  • Cleveland went to Morgan for help (Panic 1873) and was told that the U.S. did not have enough collateral for Morgan to loan the U.S> gold to avoid bankruptcy!


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