Relative time
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Relative Time:. Ages of events are placed in order of occurrence. No exact date is identified. Ex. WWI and WWII I am the second child in my family. Absolute Time:. identifies the exact date of an event. Ex. 65 Million Years Ago 1990. Finding age with relative time:.

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Relative time

Relative Time:

  • Ages of events are placed in order of occurrence.

  • No exact date is identified.

    • Ex. WWI and WWII

    • I am the second child in my family.


Absolute time

Absolute Time:

  • identifies the exact date of an event.

    • Ex. 65 Million Years Ago

    • 1990


Finding age with relative time

Finding age with relative time:

  • The Law of Superposition - in a sequence of undisturbed sedimentary rocks, the oldest rocks will be at the bottom.


Relative time

2. The law of cross-cutting relationships – anything that cuts across layers of rock is younger than the rocks that it has intruded into. This applies to faults and igneous intrusions.


3 the law of included fragments the fragments that make up a rock are older than the entire sample

3. The law of included fragments - the fragments that make up a rock are older than the entire sample.


Relative time

  • The Law of Folds or Tilts: tilts in rocks are younger than the rocks themselves.

  • Original Horizontality- Rocks are usually deposited flat and level.

  • Cole’s Law-

    Thinly sliced cabbage.


Other guidelines for figuring out a sequence

Other Guidelines for figuring out a sequence:

  • Sedimentary rocks are usually formed under water.

  • Weathering and erosion usually happen above water (on dry land).


Relative time

  • Contact metamorphism shows that the rock that was changed was there first when the intrusion happened.


Time for a worksheet

Time for a worksheet

  • Sequence 1 & 2


Sequence 1 uplift erosion

Sequence 1: Uplift & Erosion

  • Limestone deposited

  • Sandstone deposited

  • Shale Deposited

  • Uplift

  • Erosion


Sequence 2 faulting

Sequence 2: Faulting

  • Limestone deposited

  • Sandstone deposited

  • Shale deposited

  • Faulting


Time for another worksheet

Time for another worksheet

  • Sequence 3 & 4


Sequence 3 folding

Sequence 3: Folding

  • Limestone deposited

  • Sandstone deposited

  • Shale deposited

  • Folding


By the way

By the way…

  • How can you tell if folding has gone so far as to flip the layers over?


Sequence 4 igneous intrusion

Sequence 4: Igneous Intrusion

  • Limestone deposited

  • Sandstone deposited

  • Shale deposited

  • Igneous Intrusion

    Note: contact metamorphism is the same event as the intrusion.


Formation of an unconformity

Formation of an unconformity


Relative time

Layers are formed according to superposition.


Relative time

Something happens to uplift the area

folding

faulting, etc.


Relative time

Erosion wears away the uppermost layers


Relative time

Area submerges and deposition begins again.

Here’s the

unconformity


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