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The MONGOLS Yuan DynastY

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The MONGOLS Yuan DynastY. Mongolian Steppes. Xinjiang Region – Typical Uygher [Mongol] “Yurt ”. Mongol Invasions. Mongol Warriors. Mongol Archer. Gold Saddle Arch – Mongols, 13c. Gold Saddle, Front View – Mongols, 13c. The MONGOLS [“Golden Horde”].

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The MONGOLS

Yuan DynastY

the mongols golden horde
The MONGOLS [“Golden Horde”]
  • Temujin --> Genghis Khan [“Universal Ruler”]
    • 1162 - 1227
    • from the steppe [dry, grass-covered plains of Central Asia]
the mongols golden horde1
The MONGOLS [“Golden Horde”]
  • Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws:
    • If you do not pay homage, we will take your prosperity.
    • If you do not have prosperity, we will take your children.
    • If you do not have children, we will take your wife.
    • If you do not have a wife, we will take your head.
  • Used cruelty as a weapon --> some areas never recovered from Mongol destruction!
yuan mongol dynasty 1279 1368 c e
Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty, 1279-1368 C.E.
  • Kublai Khan [r. 1260-1294]
    • Pax Mongolica [“Mongol Peace”]
      • Tolerated Chinese culturebut lived apart from them. 
      • No Chinese in top govt. posts.
      • Believed foreigner were moretrustworthy.
      • Encouraged foreign trade & foreign merchants to live and work in China.
        • Marco Polo
marco polo 1254 1324
Marco Polo (1254-1324)
  • A Venetian merchant.
  • Traveled through YuanChina: 1271-1295
    • “Black Stones” [coal]
    • Gunpowder.
    • Noodles.
yuan dynasty 1279 1368 c e
Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368 C.E.
  • The Black Plague was spread by the Mongols in the mid-14c.
  • Sent fleets against Japan.
    • 1281 --> 150,000 warriors
    • Defeated by kamikazi [“winds of the gods”] 
  • Kublai Khan experienced several humiliating defeats in Southeast Asia late in his life.
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