The MONGOLS
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The MONGOLS Yuan DynastY. Mongolian Steppes. Xinjiang Region – Typical Uygher [Mongol] “Yurt ”. Mongol Invasions. Mongol Warriors. Mongol Archer. Gold Saddle Arch – Mongols, 13c. Gold Saddle, Front View – Mongols, 13c. The MONGOLS [“Golden Horde”].

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The MONGOLS Yuan DynastY

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The mongols yuan dynasty

The MONGOLS

Yuan DynastY


The mongols yuan dynasty

Mongolian Steppes


The mongols yuan dynasty

Xinjiang Region – Typical Uygher [Mongol] “Yurt”


The mongols yuan dynasty

Mongol Invasions


Mongol warriors

Mongol Warriors


Mongol archer

Mongol Archer


Gold saddle arch mongols 13c

Gold Saddle Arch – Mongols, 13c


Gold saddle front view mongols 13c

Gold Saddle, Front View – Mongols, 13c


The mongols golden horde

The MONGOLS [“Golden Horde”]

  • Temujin --> Genghis Khan [“Universal Ruler”]

    • 1162 - 1227

    • from the steppe [dry, grass-covered plains of Central Asia]


The mongols golden horde1

The MONGOLS [“Golden Horde”]

  • Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws:

    • If you do not pay homage, we will take your prosperity.

    • If you do not have prosperity, we will take your children.

    • If you do not have children, we will take your wife.

    • If you do not have a wife, we will take your head.

  • Used cruelty as a weapon --> some areas never recovered from Mongol destruction!


Mongol nobleman late 13c

Mongol Nobleman, late 13c


Robe of a mongol nobleman early 14c

Robe of a Mongol Nobleman, early 14c


Yuan golden bowl 13c

Yuan Golden Bowl, 13c


The mongols yuan dynasty

The Extent of the Mongol Empire


Yuan mongol dynasty 1279 1368 c e

Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty, 1279-1368 C.E.

  • Kublai Khan [r. 1260-1294]

    • Pax Mongolica [“Mongol Peace”]

      • Tolerated Chinese culturebut lived apart from them. 

      • No Chinese in top govt. posts.

      • Believed foreigner were moretrustworthy.

      • Encouraged foreign trade & foreign merchants to live and work in China.

        • Marco Polo


Marco polo 1254 1324

Marco Polo (1254-1324)

  • A Venetian merchant.

  • Traveled through YuanChina: 1271-1295

    • “Black Stones” [coal]

    • Gunpowder.

    • Noodles.


Marco polo s travels

Marco Polo’s Travels


Yuan porcelains ceramics

Yuan Porcelains & Ceramics


Yuan dynasty 1279 1368 c e

Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368 C.E.

  • The Black Plague was spread by the Mongols in the mid-14c.

  • Sent fleets against Japan.

    • 1281 --> 150,000 warriors

    • Defeated by kamikazi [“winds of the gods”] 

  • Kublai Khan experienced several humiliating defeats in Southeast Asia late in his life.


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