A challenge modeling the dynamics of the inter domain routing in the internet
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A Challenge: Modeling the Dynamics of the Inter-domain Routing in the Internet. Timothy G. Griffin Matthew Roughan Computer Laboratory School of Mathematical Sciences University of Cambridge University of Adelaide, Australia

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A challenge modeling the dynamics of the inter domain routing in the internet

A Challenge:Modeling the Dynamics of the Inter-domain Routing in the Internet

Timothy G. Griffin Matthew Roughan

Computer Laboratory School of Mathematical Sciences

University of Cambridge University of Adelaide, Australia

[email protected] [email protected]

http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~tgg22/ http://www.maths.adelaide.edu.au

Mathematics for Networks Workshop

QMUL

March 23 2005


Architecture of dynamic routing

Architecture of Dynamic Routing

IGP

EGP (= BGP)

AS 1

IGP

IGP = Interior Gateway Protocol

Metric based: OSPF, IS-IS, RIP,

EIGRP (cisco)

AS 2

EGP = Exterior Gateway Protocol

Policy based: BGP

The Routing Domain of BGP is the entire Internet


Bgp operations hard state protocol

BGP Operations : Hard State Protocol

Establish session on

TCP port 179

AS1

BGP session

Exchange all

active routes

AS2

While connection

is ALIVE exchange

route UPDATE messages

Exchange incremental

updates


How many asns are being used today

How Many ASNs are Being Used Today?

Jan 11, 2005

Thanks to Geoff Huston: http://www.potaroo.net/


How many prefixes are being routed today

How Many Prefixes are Being Routed Today?

Jan 11, 2005

From AS 4637: Reach Network


Data collection gnu zebra

Data Collection: GNU Zebra

router

router

BGP sessions

router

Zebra

Box

BGP sessions

router


Ripe routing information service

RIPE Routing Information Service

http://www.ripe.net/ris

rrc00.ripe.net at RIPE NCC, Amsterdam, collects default free routing updates from peers. From October 1999.

rrc01.ripe.net at LINX, London. Collects route updates announced by LINX members. From July 2000.

rrc02.ripe.net at SFINX, Paris. Collects route updates announced by SFINX members . From March 2001.

rrc03.ripe.net at AMS-IX, Amsterdam. Collects route updates announced by AMS-IX members. From January 2001.

rrc04.ripe.net at CIXP, Geneva. Collects route updates announced by CIXP members. From April 2001.

rrc05.ripe.net at VIX, Vienna. Collects route updates announced by VIX members. From June 2001.

rrc06.ripe.net at Otemachi, Japan. Collects route updates announced by JPIX members. From August 2001.

rrc07.ripe.net in Stockholm, Sweden. Collects route updates announced by the NETNOD members. From April 2002.

rrc08.ripe.net at San Jose (CA), USA. Collects route updates announced by the MAE-WEST members. From May 2002.

rrc09.ripe.net at Zurich, Switzerland. Collected route updates announced by the TIX members. From May 2003 to until early Feb 2004.

rrc10.ripe.net at Milan, Italy. Collects route updates announced by the MIX members. From Nov 2003.

rrc11.ripe.net at New York (NY), USA. Collects route updates announced by the NYIIX members. From Feb 2004.

rrc12.ripe.net at Frankfurt, Germany. Collects route updates announced by the DE-CIX members. From Jul 2004.


University of oregon route views project http antc uoregon edu route views

University of Oregon Route Views Projecthttp://antc.uoregon.edu/route-views

Participants

AOL (NoVa) 66.185.128.48 through AS1668

APAN (tpr2-tokyo) 203.181.248.242 through AS7660

ATT (SFO) 192.205.31.33 through AS7018

Abilene (Indiana) 198.32.8.252 through AS11537

Accretive (PAO) 207.246.129.6 through AS11608

Accretive (SEA) 207.246.129.14 through AS11608

Army Research Lab 192.12.65.1 through AS13

Broadwing (ADDS) 216.140.14.186 through AS6395

Broadwing (MAE-EAST) 216.140.8.63 through AS6395

Broadwing (MAE-WEST) 216.140.2.62 through AS6395

C&W USA (Santa Clara) 208.172.146.2 through AS3561

COMindico (AU) 203.194.0.5 through AS9942

Carrier1 (NYC) 212.4.193.253 through AS8918

EBONE (EU) 192.121.154.25 through AS1755

ELI (MAE-EAST) 208.186.154.36 through AS5650

ELI (MAE-WEST) 208.186.154.35 through AS5650

EPOCH (PAIX) 155.229.0.36 through AS4565

ESnet (GA) 134.55.20.229 through AS293

France Telecom (NYC) 193.251.128.22 through AS5511

GLOBIX (LINX) 195.66.224.82 through AS4513

GLOBIX (New York) 209.10.12.28 through AS4513

GLOBIX (Chicago) 209.10.12.125 through AS4513

GLOBIX (Palo Alto) 209.10.12.156 through AS4513

GT Group Tel (Toronto,CA) 216.18.63.137 through AS6539

Genuity (Palo Alto) 4.0.4.90 through AS1

GlobalCrossing (PAIX) 208.51.113.253 through AS3549

IAGnet (Chicago) 204.42.253.253 through AS267

IIJ (Japan) 202.232.1.91 through AS2497

ISC (Palo Alto) 204.152.184.126 through AS3557

Intermedia (MAE-EAST) 198.32.187.23 through AS2548

JINX (Johannesburg) 196.7.106.72 through AS2905

Jippii (ESPANIX/Spain) 62.164.11.10 through AS8782

LINX (London) 194.68.130.254 through AS5459

Level3 (Denver) 209.244.2.115 through AS3356

MFN/AboveNet (MAE-WEST) 207.126.96.1 through AS6461

MFS/MAE-lab (San Jose) 204.29.239.1 through AS6066

Nacamar (Frankfurt) 213.200.87.254 through AS3257

Netrail (MAE-WEST) 205.215.45.50 through AS4006

Port80 (Stockholm) 217.75.96.60 through AS16150

RCN (PAIX) 207.172.6.221 through AS6079

RCN (VA) 207.172.6.173 through AS6079

RIPE NCC (Amsterdam) 193.0.0.56 through AS3333

STARTAP (Chicago) 206.220.240.95 through AS10764

Sprint (Stockton) 144.228.241.81 through AS1239

Telefonica (New York) 213.140.32.144 through AS12956

Teleglobe (London,UK) 195.219.96.239 through AS8297

Teleglobe (PAIX) 207.45.223.244 through AS6453

Telstra (Sydney,AU) 203.62.252.26 through AS1221

TELUS (Toronto) 66.203.205.62 through AS852

TouchAmerica () 157.130.182.254 through AS19092

Verio () 129.250.0.11 through AS2914

Verio () 129.250.0.6 through AS2914

WCI Cable (Hillboro, OR) 209.161.175.4 through AS14608

Williams (San Francisco) 64.200.199.3 through AS7911

Williams (San Francisco) 64.200.199.4 through AS7911

X0 (Bay Area) 205.158.2.126 through AS2828

Zocalo (Berkeley) 157.22.9.7 through AS715

blackrose.org (Ann Arbor) 204.212.44.131 through AS234

netINS (Des Moines) 167.142.3.6 through AS5056

Many streams since 2001


Reading the data

Reading the Data

www.mrtd.net

route_btoa translates binary to ASCII


Bgp update streams

BGP Update Streams

Data from rrc01.ripe.net (LINX, London)


A closer look

A Closer Look …


High variability

High Variability


A closer look1

A Closer Look …


1000 second bins

… 1000 Second Bins


Look at bgp table size

Look At BGP Table Size

table size


A closer look2

A Closer Look …

table size


Another example christmas eve

Another Example: Christmas Eve!


A closer look3

A Closer Look …


High variability again

High Variability, Again


1000 second bins1

… 1000 Second Bins


And table size

And Table Size


The challenge

The Challenge

Can we develop rigorous stochastic models for

  • the generation of BGP updates?

  • the propagation of BGP updates?

  • observed BGP update streams?

  • correlations between multiple data streams?

  • anomaly detection?

  • improving protocol design?


This will not be easy

This will not be easy…

  • Data is complex

  • BGP topology is not known

  • BGP policies are secret

  • Implementation matters

  • A network of BGP speakers acts like a large network of Communicating Finite State Machines ---- so is a large finite state transducer


A set of bgp speakers as a communicating finite state machine

A set of BGP speakers as a Communicating Finite State Machine


The fsm at node 4

The FSM at node 4


The fsm at node 5

The FSM at node 5


One announce delete at node 1 can produce 52 possible outputs at node 5

One announce/delete at node 1can produce 52 possible outputs at node 5


Implementation does matter

Implementation Does Matter!

stateless withdraws

widely deployed

stateful withdraws

widely deployed

Thanks to Abha Ahuja and Craig Labovit for this plot.


A few useful links

A few useful links…

Real-time Global Routing Metrics

http://www.nanog.org/mtg-0402/ogielski.html

BGP Beacons

http://www.psg.com/~zmao/BGPBeacon.html

http://www.ripe.net/ris/docs/beacon.html

What is the sound of one route flapping?

http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/~mili/workshop2002/slides/griffin_dartmouth_20020723.pdf


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