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Market failure: Monopoly. AS Economics Unit 1. Aims and Objectives. Aim: To understand the barriers to entry in a monopolistic market. Objectives: All: Define a pure monopoly All: Explain how pure monopolistic firms can restrict output and price fix.

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Market failure monopoly
Market failure: Monopoly

AS Economics Unit 1

Aims and objectives
Aims and Objectives


  • To understand the barriers to entry in a monopolistic market.


  • All: Define a pure monopoly

  • All: Explain how pure monopolistic firms can restrict output and price fix.

  • Most: Analyse the barriers to entry in a monopolistic market.

  • Some: Evaluate the case of a monopoly.


  • In pairs decide on a definition of a Monopoly market.

  • To help you think about the objective of playing the board game monopoly.

  • 2 mins

Pure monopoly definition
Pure Monopoly Definition

  • A single firm produces the whole of the output of a market.

  • Faces no competition from other firms as there are no other firms in the market.

  • 100% market share

Pure monopolistic market
Pure Monopolistic Market

  • Competitive market.

  • Monopolistic firm enters the market.

  • In a pure monopolistic market the firm can restrict output (Q1-Q2).

  • Market equilibrium was (Q1-P1)

  • Therefore it can charge a higher price for it’s products to make higher profits.








Non pure monopoly definition
Non-Pure Monopoly Definition

  • A market which is dominated by one firm.

  • The firm owns more than 25% of market share.


  • An effective monopoly must be able to exclude rival firms from the market through barriers to entry (things which stop other firms entering a market)

  • A monopoly is strongest when it produces an essential good for which there is no substitutes or when demand is inelastic. .E.g. One firm producing bread/milk. (Unrealistic)

Barriers to entry
Barriers to Entry

  • Factors which prevent firms from entering a market.

  • In a monopoly barriers which exist are based on economies of scale.

Barriers to entry1
Barriers to Entry

A Monopolistic market

L limit and predatory pricing
L: Limit and Predatory Pricing

  • The large monopolistic firms have the lowest costs in an industry.

  • Economies of scale.

  • Firm lowers it’s prices to a level where other firms cannot compete.

  • Driving them out of the industry.


A advertising
A: Advertising

  • Large firms can spread the costs of advertising, as they produce thousands of units.

  • New entrants to the market have to match that level of advertising expenditure but they cannot.


M multiplicity of brands
M: Multiplicity of Brands

  • Large monopolistic firms can sell a large number of different products and brands.

  • Targets multiple areas of the market.

  • Therefore attracts more customers.

  • Tesco stocks 20 varieties of apple!


I integration combining two firms
I: Integration (combining two firms)

  • As monopolistic firms get larger they can integrate, with larger firms and smaller ones.

  • This enables them to use predatory pricing more effectively.

  • Economies of scaleget larger.


N non price competition
N: Non Price Competition

  • Strategies to persuade customers to buy goods, without lowering prices.

  • Tesco Clubcard

  • 8 million users, most popular loyalty card in UK.

  • The greater the benefits for the customer, the more years that customer will remain loyal.


B branding
B: Branding

  • Brands have unique characteristics. Built over many years.

  • Created through advertising.

  • Making demand more inelastic.


R research and development
R: Research and Development


  • Increasing expenditure on R&D

  • Firms can produce products which give

    them the edge over their competitors.

  • Charge a higher price than their


Mini plenary
Mini Plenary

  • Write down on your post it note the seven barriers to entry to monopolistic firms.

Plenary monopoly of french taxi drivers
Plenary: Monopoly of French Taxi Drivers


  • What barriers to entry do you feel the new French taxi drivers facing? (2 Marks)

  • Draw the diagram to show what has been occurring in the French taxi industry prior to this firm entering the market. (4 marks)

  • What may be the effects of a new firm entering this industry? (6 Marks)

Monopoly and market failure
Monopoly and market failure

  • Occurs because compared to the competitive market, output falls and the price rises, leading to under consumption of the good the monopoly produces.