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GEOL3045: Planetary Geology. Lysa Chizmadia Earth-Moon System. Earth is 3rd planet from the Sun First with natural satellite Largest planet in inner solar system Diameter = 1.3 x 10 4 km Highest density 5.52 g/cm 3 FeNi core 1/6  ’s volume > Mars Youngest surface Weathering

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geol3045 planetary geology

GEOL3045: Planetary Geology

Lysa Chizmadia

Earth-Moon System

introduction
Earth is 3rd planet from the Sun

First with natural satellite

Largest planet in inner solar system

Diameter = 1.3 x 104 km

Highest density

5.52 g/cm3

FeNi core 1/6 ’s volume

> Mars

Youngest surface

Weathering

Plate Tectonics

Introduction

Image from: http://www.nineplanets.org/earth.html

Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth

plate tectonics
Plate Tectonics
  • Three types of plate boundaries
    • Divergent
    • Convergent
    • Transform
  • Explains distribution of e-quakes & volcanoes
  • Driven by convection
    • Primordial heat from
      • Accretion
      • Radioactive decay
      • Core crystallization

Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth

Image from: http://www.nineplanets.org/earth.html

divergent boundaries
Divergent Boundaries
  • AKA Spreading Center
  • AKA Rifts
  • Largest Mountain Chains in Solar System
  • Plates move apart due to eruption of lava
  • New lava = new oceanic crust
convergent boundaries
Convergent Boundaries
  • AKA Destructive Boundaries
  • AKA Subduction Zones
  • Old oceanic crust dense & heavy
    • Heavy vs. light => subduction
  • Three Types:
    • Ocean-ocean
    • Ocean-continent
    • Continent-continent
transform boundaries
Transform Boundaries
  • AKA Conservative Plate Boundary
  • Plates slide past each other
    • Fracture zones in Mid-ocean ridges
    • Strike-slips faults
  • Only e-quakes
    • No volcanoes
hot spots
Hot Spots
  • Caused by mantle plumes
  • Plumes do not move, plates do
    • Leaves track of ocean islands
  • Bend at 40Ma
    • Major change in plate motion
atmosphere hydrosphere
Atmosphere & Hydrosphere

Image from: http://www.nineplanets.org/earth.html

  • Atmospheric Layers
  • Water Cycle
  • Both act to weather surface
    • Surface is Young!

Image from:http://www.solcomhouse.com/atmosphere.htm

weathering
Weathering
  • Mechanical Weathering
    • Physical breakdown of rocks into smaller pieces
  • Chemical Weathering
    • Chemical reactions which act to dissolve minerals into aqueous ions
  • Presence of water near triple point

Image from: http://www.sv.vt.edu/classes/MSE2094_NoteBook/96ClassProj/examples/triple.html

Image from: http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/phase.html

the moon
The Moon
  • Distance from 
    • 3.8 x 105 km
  • Orbit around 
    • 27.3 days (tidally locked)
  • Rotation (phases)
    • 29.7 days
  • Density = 3.35 g/cm3
  • Due to size & composition, considered a terrestrial planet
  • Surface Composition
    • Bright Highlands (82%)
      • CaAl2Si2O8
    • Dark Maria (18%)
      • Basalt

Image from: http://www.solarviews.com/eng/earth.htm

Near Side

Far Side

Images from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon

tides
Tides
  • Spring tide: when Earth, Moon & Sun aligned
  • Neap tide: Moon perpendicular to Sun
summary
Earth

Plate Tectonics

Divergent Plates

Convergent Plates

Transform Plates

Hot Spots

Complex Atmosphere

Hydrosphere

=> Weathering

=> Young surface

Surface composition

Oceans = Basalt

Continents = Granite

Moon (Luna)

Terrestrial Planet

B/c size & composition

Low Density

Little or no FeNi core

Tidally locked to Earth

Always see same side

Pulls on oceans & crust

Surface composition

Anorthosite

Basalt

Old Surface

Heavily cratered

No weathering

Summary
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