Geol3045 planetary geology
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GEOL3045: Planetary Geology. Lysa Chizmadia Earth-Moon System. Earth is 3rd planet from the Sun First with natural satellite Largest planet in inner solar system Diameter = 1.3 x 10 4 km Highest density 5.52 g/cm 3 FeNi core 1/6  ’s volume > Mars Youngest surface Weathering

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GEOL3045: Planetary Geology

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Geol3045 planetary geology

GEOL3045: Planetary Geology

Lysa Chizmadia

Earth-Moon System


Introduction

Earth is 3rd planet from the Sun

First with natural satellite

Largest planet in inner solar system

Diameter = 1.3 x 104 km

Highest density

5.52 g/cm3

FeNi core 1/6 ’s volume

> Mars

Youngest surface

Weathering

Plate Tectonics

Introduction

Image from: http://www.nineplanets.org/earth.html

Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth


Plate tectonics

Plate Tectonics

  • Three types of plate boundaries

    • Divergent

    • Convergent

    • Transform

  • Explains distribution of e-quakes & volcanoes

  • Driven by convection

    • Primordial heat from

      • Accretion

      • Radioactive decay

      • Core crystallization

Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth

Image from: http://www.nineplanets.org/earth.html


Divergent boundaries

Divergent Boundaries

  • AKA Spreading Center

  • AKA Rifts

  • Largest Mountain Chains in Solar System

  • Plates move apart due to eruption of lava

  • New lava = new oceanic crust


Continental rifting

Continental Rifting


Convergent boundaries

Convergent Boundaries

  • AKA Destructive Boundaries

  • AKA Subduction Zones

  • Old oceanic crust dense & heavy

    • Heavy vs. light => subduction

  • Three Types:

    • Ocean-ocean

    • Ocean-continent

    • Continent-continent


Transform boundaries

Transform Boundaries

  • AKA Conservative Plate Boundary

  • Plates slide past each other

    • Fracture zones in Mid-ocean ridges

    • Strike-slips faults

  • Only e-quakes

    • No volcanoes


Hot spots

Hot Spots

  • Caused by mantle plumes

  • Plumes do not move, plates do

    • Leaves track of ocean islands

  • Bend at 40Ma

    • Major change in plate motion


Atmosphere hydrosphere

Atmosphere & Hydrosphere

Image from: http://www.nineplanets.org/earth.html

  • Atmospheric Layers

  • Water Cycle

  • Both act to weather surface

    • Surface is Young!

Image from:http://www.solcomhouse.com/atmosphere.htm


Weathering

Weathering

  • Mechanical Weathering

    • Physical breakdown of rocks into smaller pieces

  • Chemical Weathering

    • Chemical reactions which act to dissolve minerals into aqueous ions

  • Presence of water near triple point

Image from: http://www.sv.vt.edu/classes/MSE2094_NoteBook/96ClassProj/examples/triple.html

Image from: http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/phase.html


The moon

The Moon

  • Distance from 

    • 3.8 x 105 km

  • Orbit around 

    • 27.3 days (tidally locked)

  • Rotation (phases)

    • 29.7 days

  • Density = 3.35 g/cm3

  • Due to size & composition, considered a terrestrial planet

  • Surface Composition

    • Bright Highlands (82%)

      • CaAl2Si2O8

    • Dark Maria (18%)

      • Basalt

Image from: http://www.solarviews.com/eng/earth.htm

Near Side

Far Side

Images from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon


Tides

Tides

  • Spring tide: when Earth, Moon & Sun aligned

  • Neap tide: Moon perpendicular to Sun


Summary

Earth

Plate Tectonics

Divergent Plates

Convergent Plates

Transform Plates

Hot Spots

Complex Atmosphere

Hydrosphere

=> Weathering

=> Young surface

Surface composition

Oceans = Basalt

Continents = Granite

Moon (Luna)

Terrestrial Planet

B/c size & composition

Low Density

Little or no FeNi core

Tidally locked to Earth

Always see same side

Pulls on oceans & crust

Surface composition

Anorthosite

Basalt

Old Surface

Heavily cratered

No weathering

Summary


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