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Overview of Security Standards in the Grid CSE 225 High Performance and Computational Grids Spring 2000 Prepared By [email protected] Objectives :. Gain familiarity with computer and network security standards. Gain understanding of security requirements in Grid environments.

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Overview of Security Standards in the GridCSE 225High PerformanceandComputational GridsSpring 2000Prepared [email protected]
objectives
Objectives:
  • Gain familiarity with computer and network security standards.
  • Gain understanding of security requirements in Grid environments.
  • Gain understanding of some standards based security technologies present in Grid environments.
  • Learn about various Grid security models and system approaches to security.
  • Learn about some test bed implementations of security enabled Grid projects.
security domains
Security Domains
  • Intradomain - internal to a given location or single organization. Contained security boundary.
  • Interdomain - encompasses two or more locations or organizations. Agreed on security boundaries and protocols between organizations.
security the protection of assets
Security - The Protection of Assets
  • Prevention: take measure that protect your assets from damage
  • Detection: take measures that allow you to detect when an asset has been damaged, and who caused the damage.
  • Reaction: take measures that allow you to recover your assets or recover from damage to your assets.
computer security
Computer Security
  • Confidentiality: prevention of unauthorized disclosure of information.
  • Integrity: prevention of unauthorized withholding of information.
  • Availability: prevention of unauthorized withholding of information or resources.
network security 1
Network Security (1)
  • Trusted Networks
  • Identification and Authentication
  • Discretionary Access Control
  • Labels and Mandatory Access Control
  • Audit
technology cryptography
Technology - Cryptography
  • DES (Data Encryption Standard)
  • DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm)
  • RSA (Rivest, Shamir, and Adelman)
  • Blowfish
  • IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm)
  • AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)
technology ssh 1
Technology - SSH (1)
  • SSH is a packet-based binary protocol that implements a transport layer security mechanism.
  • Encompasses authentication, key exchange, encryption, and integrity.
  • TCP/IP is used as the transport usually
  • Basically an end to end encrypted tunnel
  • SSH logins the most prevalent between domains.
technology pgp
Technology - PGP
  • Pretty Good Privacy
  • Public Domain
  • Popular for email and email of files
  • PGP user builds key ring of all public keys he has been given.
  • When message of file received from contact, can decrypt if key is on key ring
shortcomings of pgp in distributed systems
Shortcomings of PGP in distributed systems
  • Reasonable basis for key management among friends, but once it passes the bounds of direct friends, the credibility becomes strained.
  • Example
    • Carol’s key is P1 signed with P2
    • Alice’s key is P2 signed with P4
    • Carol’s key is P1 signed with P5
      • What is the last certificate said Carol’s key is P3 signed with P5?
kerberos 1
Kerberos (1)
  • Supports authentication in distributed systems.
  • Used for authentication between intelligent processes, client to server tasks or workstation to other hosts.
  • Basis of Kerberos is central server that provides authenticated tokens, called tickets.
kerberos 4 strengths
Kerberos (4)Strengths
  • No password communicated on the network.
  • Cryptographic protection against spoofing.
  • Limited period of validity
  • Time stamps to prevent replay attacks
  • Mutual authentication
kerberos 5 shortcomings in distributed systems
Kerberos (5)Shortcomings in distributed systems
  • Requires continuous availability of a trusted ticket granting service.
  • Authenticity of servers requires a trusted relationship between the ticket granting server and every server.
  • Requires timely transactions.
  • Subverted workstation can save and later replay user passwords.
  • Does not scale well.
public key infrastructure 1
Public Key Infrastructure (1)
  • PKI: consists of software and procedures put in place by an organization
  • Supports the use of Public Keys for authentication and identifying users, services, and confirming digital signatures.
  • Public keys usually conform to the X.509 standard for certificates, and usually are based on the RSA public/private key encryption algorithm
public key infrastructure 2 goals
Public Key Infrastructure (2)Goals
  • Application enabler
  • Secure Sign-On
    • Secure “Single” Sign Security
  • End-User Transparency
  • Comprehensive Security
public key infrastructure 3 components and services
Public Key Infrastructure (3)Components and Services
  • Certification Authority
  • Certificate repository
  • Certificate Revocation
  • Key backup and recovery
  • Automatic key update
  • Key history management
  • Cross-certification
  • Support for non-repudiation
  • Time stamping
  • Client software
section break
Section Break
  • Security in Legion and Globus
security in legion 1 design principals
Security in Legion (1)Design Principals
  • 1- As in the Hippocratic Oath, do no harm!
  • 2- Caveat emptor - let the buyer beware.
  • 3- Small is beautiful.
security in legion 2 basic concepts
Security in Legion (2)Basic Concepts
  • Every object provides certain known member functions - MayI, CanI, Iam, and Delegate. (Can be defaulted to NIL.)
  • Two objects associated with each operation: a responsible agent (RA) and a calling agent (CA)
  • Every invocation of member function is performed in the context of a certificate which contains the Legion Object ID. Certificate digitally signed by maker
security in legion1
Security in Legion
  • Legion users responsible for own security.
  • Object might trust that the CA is correct.
  • Policies defined by objects themselves.
  • Every class defines a special member function, MayI.
  • MayI defines the security objects for a class.
  • Every member function invocation permitted only if MayI sanctions it.
security in legion2
Security in Legion
  • Authentication aided by use of Legion certificates - based on public-key cryptography by default. Must know private key to authenticate.
  • MayI functions can code their own authentication protocols
  • Every Legion object required to supply special member function Iam for authentication purposes.
security in legion3
Security inLegion
  • Login establishes user identity and creates responsibility agent for user.
  • Login is building block for authentication and delegation.
  • Object can delegate new certificate to delegate rights.
  • Delegation policy defined by object.
security in legion future work
Security in LegionFuture Work
  • Legion does not specify any particular encryption. Future standardization?
  • Legion eschews distinguished trusted objects - centralized key management server
  • Composition of a security policy
security in globus 1 standards
Security in Globus (1)Standards
  • Standards subscribed to:
    • Generic Security Services (GSS) RFC 2078
    • Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
      • [SSleay]
    • Public Key Cryptography based on X.509 certificates
    • Kerberos
security in globus 3 security requirements
Security in Globus (3)Security Requirements
  • Single sign-on
  • Protection of credentials
  • Interoperability with local security solutions
  • Exportability
  • Uniform credentials/certification infrastructure
  • Support for secure group communication
  • Support for multiple implementations
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Local Services

Condor

MPI

TCP

UDP

LSF

Easy

NQE

AIX

Irix

Solaris

Layered Architecture

Applications

High-level Services and Tools

GlobusView

Testbed Status

DUROC

MPI

MPI-IO

CC++

Nimrod/G

globusrun

Core Services

Nexus

GRAM

Metacomputing Directory Service

Globus Security Interface

Heartbeat Monitor

Gloperf

GASS

security in globus 4
Security in Globus (4)
  • assumes grid consists of multiple trust domains
  • assumes resource pool and user population are large and dynamic
  • interoperate with local security solutions - local security policies differ
  • authentication exportable - cannot directly or indirectly require use of bulk privacy
security in globus 5
Security in Globus (5)
  • uniform credentials/certification - a user will be associated differently with site it has access to single logon - number of processes used in a computation will be dynamic access control
security in globus 6 grid security infrastructure
Security in Globus (6)Grid Security Infrastructure
  • GSI provides authentication and data integrity (data signing, not encryption) services for Unix and Windows client/server programs
  • Can utilize an X.509 PKI
  • GSI library is layered on top of the SSLeay
  • Performs the X.509 certificate handling and SSL protocol.
slide42

User

User Proxy

Site 1

Process

Process

GRAM

GRAM

GSI

GSI

Process

Process

Ticket

Process

Process

Public Key

Kerberos

CREDENTIAL

Single sign-onvia “grid-id”

Assignment of

credentials to

“user proxies”

Globus

Credential

Mutual

user-resource

authentication

Site 2

Mapping

to local ids

Authenticated

interprocess

communication

GSSAPI:

multiple

low-level

mechanisms

Certificate

summary
Summary
  • Computer security is machine access centric
  • Network security is network access centric
  • Grid security is application centric
  • Inter-domain communications based upon common security standards such as PKI.
  • Metacomputing approach that embrace security standards will be more widely adopted.
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