Escaping the pesticide trap non pesticide management in india ingredients for success
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Escaping the Pesticide Trap: Non-Pesticide Management in India Ingredients for Success PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Escaping the Pesticide Trap: Non-Pesticide Management in India Ingredients for Success. The Crisis: The Beginnings. Cotton production spread among small farms as a cash crop. Cotton required chemical insecticides and fertilizers: new to these farmers!

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Escaping the Pesticide Trap: Non-Pesticide Management in India Ingredients for Success

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Escaping the Pesticide Trap:Non-Pesticide Management in IndiaIngredients for Success


The Crisis: The Beginnings

  • Cotton production spread among small farms as a cash crop.

  • Cotton required chemical insecticides and fertilizers: new to

    these farmers!

  • Commercial dealers (a) sold seeds and chemicals on credit

    (b) guaranteed purchase of cotton crop (c) provided information

    about use from multinational corporate suppliers.

  • Early years made profit because cotton pests had not moved in.


The Crisis: The Trap

  • Cotton pests plagued fields, requiring regular spraying.

  • Weak pests died while resistant pests lived and multiplied.

  • Farmers reacted by spraying more pesticides more often.

  • Insecticides killed predators: birds, wasps, beetles, & spiders.

  • Without predators, forced to spray or the harvest would be lost.

  • Insecticides damaged soil, requiring more chemical fertilizers.


The Crisis: The Decline

  • Input expenses went up so much farmers lost money on cotton.

  • Farmers debt deepened since inputs were bought on credit.

  • Desperation led to illegal side-jobs & indentured labor for kids.

  • Education was set aside, assuring continued cycle of poverty.

  • Insecticide poisoning spread: illness, hospital bills, & death.

  • Farmers trapped in cotton production because agrochemical

    dealers required full debt repayment if they stopped buying.

  • Suicide rate soared to highest in India as debt escalated.


Non-Pesticide Management (NPM)

  • Scientists devised system for using no chemical insecticides.

  • Planting Neem trees, which have natural insect repellants.

  • Applying Neem leaf/seed solution, chili-garlic solution,

    cow dung and urine to repel pests.

  • Fighting pests by applying naturally occurring viruses.


Non-Pesticide Management (NPM)

  • Planting ‘trap crops’ that lure away insect pests.

  • Burning heavily infested branches.

  • Using colorful sticky boards to trap pests.

  • Lighting small bonfires to kill bollworm moths.

  • Building bird perches to attract insect-eating birds.

  • Plowing deeply between crops to wipe out pest pupae in soil.


Outside stimulation and facilitation

  • Venu Madhav came to Punukula as worker for NGO SECURE.

  • Took villagers to distant farm that used NPM.

  • Scientists put together a package of NPM methods.

  • SECURE found and coached a villager willing to risk NPM.

  • Two SECURE staff members stayed in Punukula to help.

  • After Punukula success, Center for Sustainable Agriculture

    trained women in several thousand other villages to use NPM.


Strong local democratic institutions and enduring commitment of local leadership

  • First adopter Margam Mutthaiah -- strong and dedicated leader

  • NPM grew in a widening circle until entire village used it.

  • Village council and farmers’ association supported and helped.

  • Women pressured men to use NPM and prepared materials.

  • NPM spread to existing women self-help groups across region.


Co-adaption between social system and ecosystem

  • Farmers organized to make eco-friendly NPM a reality.

  • Farmers used local Neem trees instead of costly insecticides.

  • Improved health of people and ecosystem.

  • Soil nourished by Neem cakes and animal dung.

  • NPM techniques allowed birds and livestock to thrive.

  • Instead of chemical fertilizers they started vermi-composting.


"Letting nature do the work"

  • NPM methods repelled, trapped or killed pests.

  • Neem leaves and seeds contain natural insect repellants.

  • Repellants affected specific pests and didn’t harm other life.

  • Pests could not build resistance to such diverse methods.

  • Birds and pest predators returned, so less Neem needed.

  • Putting Neem cakes in soil improved nitrogen content.


Rapid results

  • First season’s harvest with NPM as big as with insecticides.

  • Immediate and dramatic drop in production costs.

  • The next year (1998), 20 farmers joined in using NPM.

  • Within a few years, farmers cleared their debts.

  • By 2004, village council declared Punukula pesticide-free.

  • By 2008, 340,000 farmers in 3170 villages using NPM.


Overcoming social obstacles

  • Insecticide dealers demanded full debt payment if farmers

    stopped buying insecticides.

  • Farmers banded together to fight this demand.

  • Dealers punished NPM users by paying less for their cotton.

  • Farmers formed a marketing cooperative and found fair prices.

  • Convinced State to ignore corporate lobbyists & support NPM.


Social and ecological diversity

  • Punukula farmers received a diversity of technical assistance.

  • The Neem tree has a variety of natural pesticides and defenses

    which prevent development of resistance by pests.

  • Used a diversity of NPM methods for unique qualities of pests.

  • Diversity of pest predators restored: natural controls!


Social and ecological memory

  • Neem traditionally used in health & beauty products and to

    protect stored grains from pest insects.

  • NPM used ecological memory of birds and pest predators.


Building Resilience

  • Healthier society and ecosystem helped sustain their gains in

    the face of unexpected challenges.

  • Pesticide poisoning stopped and health and vitality returned.

  • Less spent on agricultural chemicals and hospitals allowed

    farmers to pay off debts and achieve financial resilience.

  • Children rescued from indentured servitude started schooling.

  • Commitment secured by teaching NPM in schools and training

    women in self-help groups across the region.


Building Resilience

  • Women built income making and selling NPM materials.

  • Farmers expanded to new crops and businesses.

  • Success bred confidence, solidarity & stronger social support.

  • Community united and made demands on government.

  • Villagers worked on community projects, such as purifying

    village water & setting up a cotton gin to boost income.


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