Parenteral nutrition formula calculations and monitoring protocols
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Parenteral Nutrition Formula Calculations and Monitoring Protocols. Macronutrient Concentrations in PN Solutions. Macronutrient concentrations (%) = the grams of solute/100 ml of fluid D70 has 70 grams of dextrose per 100 ml. 10% amino acid solution has 10 grams amino acids/100 ml of solution

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Macronutrient concentrations in pn solutions
Macronutrient Concentrations in PN Solutions Protocols

  • Macronutrient concentrations (%) = the grams of solute/100 ml of fluid

  • D70 has 70 grams of dextrose per 100 ml.

  • 10% amino acid solution has 10 grams amino acids/100 ml of solution

  • 20% lipids has 20 grams of lipid/100 ml of solution


Protein content calculations

To calculate the grams of protein supplied by a TPN solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

Example Protein Calculation

1000 ml of 8% amino acids:

1000 ml x 8 g/100 ml = 80g

Or 1000 x .08 = 80 g

Protein Content Calculations


Calculation of dextrose calories
Calculation of Dextrose Calories solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

  • Calculate grams of dextrose:

    • Multiply the total volume of dextrose soln (in ml) supplied in a day by the dextrose concentration. This gives you grams of dextrose supplied in a day.

  • Multiply the grams of dextrose by 3.4 (there are 3.4 kcal/g dextrose) to determine kcalories supplied by dextrose in a day.


Sample dextrose calculation
Sample Dextrose Calculation solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

  • 1000 ml of D50W (50% dextrose)

    • 1000 ml x 50g / 100 ml = 500g dextrose

    • OR 1000 ml x .50 = 500g dextrose

  • 500g dextrose x 3.4 kcal/g = 1700 kcal


Calculation of lipid content
Calculation of Lipid Content solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

  • To determine kcalories supplied by lipid*, multiply the volume of 10% lipid (in ml) by 1.1; multiply the volume of 20% lipid (in ml) by 2.0.

  • If lipids are not given daily, divide total kcalories supplied by fat in one week by 7 to get an estimate of the average fat kcalories per day.

    *|Lipid emulsions contain glycerol, so lipid emulsion does not have 9 kcal per gram as it would if it were pure fat. Some use 10 kcal/gm for lipid emulsions.

Source: http://www.csun.edu/~cjh78264/parenteral/calculation/calc07.html


Example lipid calculation for 2 in 1
Example Lipid Calculation for solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration. 2-in-1

  • 500 ml of 10% lipid

    • 500 ml x 1.1 kcal/ml = 550 kcal

  • 500 ml 20% lipid

    • 500 ml x 2.0 kcal/ml = 1000 kcal

  • Or, alternatively, 500 ml of 10% lipid = 50 grams lipid x 10 kcal/g or 500 kcal

Source: http://www.csun.edu/~cjh78264/parenteral/calculation/calc07.html


Calculation of dextrose aa with piggyback lipids 2 in 1
Calculation of Dextrose/AA with Piggyback Lipids (2-in-1) solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

  • Determine patient's kcalorie, protein, and fluid needs.

  • Determine lipid volume and rate for "piggy back" administration.

    • Determine kcals to be supplied from lipid. (Usually 30% of total kcals).

    • Divide lipid kcals by 1.1 kcal/cc if you are using 10% lipids; divide lipid kcals by 2 kcal/cc if you are using 20% lipids. This is the total volume.

    • Divide total volume of lipid by 24 hr to determine rate in cc/hr.

Source: http://www.csun.edu/~cjh78264/parenteral/calculation/calc07.html


Determine protein concentration
Determine protein concentration solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

  • Subtract volume of lipid from total fluid requirement to determine remaining fluid needs.

  • Divide protein requirement (in grams) by remaining fluid requirement and multiply by 100. This gives you the amino acid concentration in %.

  • Multiply protein requirement in grams x 4 to determine calories from protein

Source: http://www.csun.edu/~cjh78264/parenteral/calculation/calc07.html


Determine dextrose concentration
Determine dextrose concentration. solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

  • Subtract kcals of lipid + calories from protein from total kcals to determine remaining kcal needs.

  • Divide "remaining kcals" by 3.4 kcal/g to determine grams of dextrose.

  • Divide dextrose grams by remaining fluid needs (in protein calculations) and multiply by 100 to determine dextrose concentration.

  • Determine rate of AA/dex solution by dividing "remaining fluid needs” by 24 hr.

Source: http://www.csun.edu/~cjh78264/parenteral/calculation/calc07.html


Example calculation
Example Calculation solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

Nutrient Needs:

Kcals: 1800. Protein: 88 g. Fluid: 2000 cc

  1800 kcal x 30% = 540 kcal from lipid

Lipid (10%):

  • 540 kcal/1.1 (kcal/cc) = 491 cc/24 hr =

    20 cc/hr 10% lipid (round to 480 ml)

  • Remaining fluid needs: 2000cc - 480cc = 1520cc


  • Protein calculations
    Protein Calculations solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

    Protein: 88 g / 1520 cc x 100 =5.8% amino acid solution

    88 g. x 4 kcal/gm =352 kcals from protein

    • Remaining kcal needs: 1800 – (528 + 352) = 920 kcal


    Dextrose concentration
    Dextrose Concentration solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

    • 920 kcal/3.4 kcal/g = 270 g dextrose

    • 270 g / 1520 cc x 100 = 17.7% dextrose solution

    • Rate of Amino Acid / Dextrose: 1520 cc / 24hr = 63 cc/hr

      TPN recommendation: Suggest two-in-one PN 17.7% dextrose, 5.8% a.a. @ 63 cc/hr with 10% lipids piggyback @ 20 cc/hr


    Re check calculations
    Re-check calculations solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

    TPN recommendation: Suggest two-in-one PN 17.7% dextrose, 5.8% a.a. @ 63 cc/hr with 10% lipids piggyback @ 20 cc/hr

    63 cc/hr x 24 = 1512 ml

    1512 * (.177) = 268 g D X 3.4 kcals= 911 kcals

    1512 * (.058) = 88 g a.a. x 4 kcals = 352

    20 cc/hr lipids*24 = 480*1.1 kcals/cc = 528

    1791


    3 in 1 tna solutions
    3 in 1 TNA Solutions solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration. |

    • Determine patient's kcalorie, protein, and fluid needs.

    • Divide daily fluid need by 24 to determine rate of administration.

    • Determine lipid concentration.

      • Determine kcals to be supplied from lipid. (Usually 30% of total kcals).

      • Determine grams of lipid by dividing kcal lipid by 10. *

      • Divide lipid grams by total daily volume (= fluid needs or final rate x 24) and multiply by 100 to determine % lipid.


    3 in 1 tna solutions1
    3-in-1 TNA Solutions solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

    • Determine protein concentration by dividing protein needs (grams) by total daily volume and multiply by 100.

    • Multiply protein needs in grams x 4 kcal/gm = kcals from protein

    • Determine dextrose grams.

    • Subtract kcals of lipid andkcals from protein from total kcals to determine remaining kcal needs.

    • Divide "remaining kcals" by 3.4 kcal/g to determine grams of dextrose.

    • Determine dextrose concentration by dividing dextrose grams by total daily volume and multiply by 100


    Sample calculation 3 in 1
    Sample Calculation 3-in-1 solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

    • Nutrient Needs:

      • Kcals: 1800 Protein: 88 g Fluid: 2000 cc

    • Lipid : 1800 kcal x 30% = 540 kcal

      • 540 kcal / 10 kcal per gram = 54 g

      • 54 g / 2000 cc x 100 = 2.7% lipid

    • Protein: 88 g / 2000 cc x 100 =4.4% amino acids

    • 88 g x 4 = 352 kcals from protein


    Sample calculation 3 in 1 cont
    Sample Calculation 3-in-1(cont) solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

    Dextrose: 908 kcal (1800 – 540 - 352)

    • 908/3.4 kcal/g = 267 g dextrose

    • 267 g / 2000 cc x 100 =13.4% dextrose solution

    • Rate of Amino Acid / Dextrose/Lipid: 2000 cc / 24hr = 83 cc/hr

    • TPN prescription: Suggest TNA 13.4% dextrose, 4.4% amino acids, 2.7% lipids at 83 cc/hour provides 88 g. protein, 1800 kcals, 2000 ml. fluid


    Evaluation of a tna order
    Evaluation of a TNA Order solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

    • PN 15% dextrose, 4.5% a.a., 3% lipid @ 100 cc/hour


    Evaluation of a pn order
    Evaluation of a PN Order solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

    PN 15% dextrose, 4.5% a.a., 3% lipid @ 100 cc/hour

    • Total volume = 2400

    • Dextrose: 15g/100 ml * 2400 ml = 360 g

    • 360 g x 3.4 kcal/gram = 1224 kcals

    • Lipids 3 g/100 ml x 2400 ml = 72 g lipids

    • 72 x 10 kcals/gram = 720 kcals


    Evaluation of a pn order1
    Evaluation of a PN Order solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

    • Amino acids: 4.5 grams/100 ml * 2400 ml = 108 grams protein

    • 108 x 4 = 432 kcals

    • 1224 + 720 + 432 = 2376 total kcals

    • Lipid is 30% of total calories

    • Dextrose is 51.5% of total calories

    • Protein is 18% of total calories


    Calculation of nonprotein calories
    Calculation of Nonprotein Calories solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

    • Some clinicians discriminate between protein and nonprotein calories although this is falling out of favor

    • This is more commonly used in critically ill patients


    Calculation of non protein calories
    Calculation of Non-Protein Calories solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

    • To determine the nonprotein kcalories (NPC) in a TPN prescription, add the dextrose calories to the lipid calories

    • In the last example, 1224 kcals (dextrose) + 720 kcals (lipid) = 1944 non-protein kcals

    • Dextrose is 63% of nonprotein kcals (1224/1944)

    • Lipid is 37% of nonprotein calories

    • In critically ill patients, some clinicians restrict lipid to 30% of nonprotein kcals


    Calculation of npc n ratio
    Calculation of NPC:N Ratio solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration. |

    • Calculate grams of nitrogen supplied per day (1 g N = 6.25g protein)

    • Divide total nonprotein calories by grams of nitrogen

    • Desirable NPC:N Ratios:

      • 80:1 the most severely stressed patients

      • 100:1 severely stressed patients

      • 150:1 unstressed patient

    Source: http://www.csun.edu/~cjh78264/parenteral/calculation/calc07.html


    Example npc n calculation
    Example NPC:N Calculation solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

    80 grams protein2250 nonprotein kcalories per day

    80g protein/ 6.25 = 12.82250/12.8 = 176NPC:N = 176:1

    Source: http://www.csun.edu/~cjh78264/parenteral/calculation/calc07.html


    Example npc fat calculation
    Example %NPC Fat Calculation* solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

    2250 nonprotein kcal550 lipid kcal

    550/2250 x 100 = 24% fat kcals

    *Limit is 60% NPC


    Osmolarity in ppn
    Osmolarity in PPN solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.

    • When a hypertonic solution is introduced into a small vein with a low blood flow, fluid from the surrounding tissue moves into the vein due to osmosis. The area can become inflamed, and thrombosis can occur.


    Iv related phlebitis
    IV-Related Phlebitis solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration.


    Calculating the osmolarity of a parenteral nutrition solution
    Calculating the Osmolarity of a Parenteral Nutrition Solution

    • Multiply the grams of dextrose per liter by 5. Example: 100 g of dextrose x 5 = 500 mOsm/L

    • Multiply the grams of protein per liter by 10. Example: 30 g of protein x 10 = 300 mOsm/L

    • Multiply the grams of lipid per liter by 1.5.

      Example: 40 g lipid x 1.5 = 60.

    • Multiply the (mEq per L sodium + potassium + calcium + magnesium) X 2

      Example: 80 X 2 = 160

    • Total osmolarity = 500 + 300 + 60 + 160 = 1020 mOsm/L

    Source: K&M and PN Nutrition in ADA, Nutrition in Clinical Practice. P 626


    Osmolarity quick calculation
    Osmolarity Quick Calculation Solution

    To calculate solution osmolarity:

    • multiply grams of dextrose per liter by 5

    • multiply grams of protein per liter by 10

    • add a & b

    • add 300 to 400 to the answer from "c". (Vitamins and minerals contribute about 300 to 400 mOsm/L.)

    Source: http://www.csun.edu/~cjh78264/parenteral/calculation/calc07.html


    Is the solution compoundable
    Is the solution compoundable? Solution

    • TPN is compounded using 10% or 15% amino acids, 70% dextrose, and 20% lipids

    • The TPN prescription must be compoundable using standard base solutions

    • This becomes an issue if the patient is on a fluid restriction


    Is the solution compoundable1
    Is the Solution Compoundable? Solution

    What is the minimum volume to compound the PN prescription?

    Example: 75 g AA

    350 g dextrose

    50 g lipid

    2000 ml fluid restriction

    AA: 10 g = 75 g = 750 ml using 10% AA

    100 mlX ml

    OR divide 75 grams by the % base solution, 75 g/ .10


    Is the solution compoundable2
    Is the solution compoundable? Solution

    Dextrose: 70 g = 350 g x = 500 ml

    100 ml X ml

    Lipid: 20 g = 50g X = 250 ml

    100 ml x ml

    Total volume = 750 ml AA + 500 ml D + 250 ml lipid + 100 ml (for electrolytes/trace) = 1600 ml (minimum volume to compound solution)

    Tip: Substrates should easily fit in 1 kcal/ml solutions


    Is this solution compoundable
    Is this solution compoundable? Solution

    PN prescription:

    AA 125 g

    D 350 g

    Lipid 50 g

    Fluid restriction 1800 ml/day


    Is this solution compoundable1
    Is this solution compoundable? Solution

    AA: 10 g = 125 g = 1250 ml 10% AA

    100 mlX ml

    Dextrose: 70 g = 350 g x = 500 ml (350/.70)

    100 ml X ml

    Lipid: 20 g = 50g X = 250 ml (50/.20)

    100 ml x ml

    Total volume = 1250 ml AA + 500 ml D + 250 ml lipid + 100 ml (for electrolytes/trace) = 2100 ml (minimum volume to compound solution)

    Verdict: not compoundable in 1800 ml.

    Action: reduce dextrose content or use 15% AA base solution if available (could deliver protein in 833 ml of 15%)


    Parenteral nutrition

    Parenteral Nutrition Solution

    Monitoring


    Monitoring for complications
    Monitoring for Complications Solution

    • Malnourished patients at risk for refeeding syndrome should have serum phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, and glucose levels monitored closely at initiation of SNS. (B)

    • In patients with diabetes or risk factors for glucose intolerance, SNS should be initiated with a low dextrose infusion rate and blood and urine glucose monitored closely. (C)

    • Blood glucose should be monitored frequently upon initiation of SNS, upon any change in insulin dose, and until measurements are stable. (B)

    ASPEN BOD. Guidelines for the use of enteral and parenteral nutrition in adult and pediatric patients. JPEN 26;41SA, 2002


    Monitoring for complications1
    Monitoring for Complications Solution

    • Serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate) should be monitored frequently upon initiation of SNS until measurements are stable. (B)

    • Patients receiving intravenous fat emulsions should have serum triglyceride levels monitored until stable and when changes are made in the amount of fat administered. (C)

    • Liver function tests should be monitored periodically in patients receiving PN. (A)

    ASPEN BOD. Guidelines for the use of enteral and parenteral nutrition in adult and pediatric patients. JPEN 26;41SA, 2002


    Acute inpatient pn monitoring
    Acute Inpatient PN Monitoring Solution

    Adapted from K&M, p. 549



    Monitor cont d
    Monitor—cont’d Solution

    • Urine:Glucose and ketones (4-6/day)Specific gravity or osmolarity (2-4/day)Urinary urea nitrogen (weekly)

    • Other:Volume infusate (daily)Oral intake (daily) if applicableUrinary output (daily)Activity, temperature, respiration (daily)WBC and differential (as needed)Cultures (as needed)


    Monitoring nutrition
    Monitoring: Nutrition Solution

    Serum Hepatic Proteins

    Parameter t ½

    Albumin 19 days

    Transferrin 9 days

    Prealbumin 2 – 3 days

    Retinol Binding Protein ~12 hours


    Complications of pn
    Complications of PN Solution

    • Refeeding syndrome

    • Hyperglycemia

    • Acid-base disorders

    • Hypertriglyceridemia

    • Hepatobiliary complications (fatty liver, cholestasis)

    • Metabolic bone disease

    • Vascular access sepsis


    Refeeding syndrome
    Refeeding Syndrome Solution

    • Patients at risk are malnourished, particularly marasmic patients

    • Can occur with enteral or parenteral nutrition

    • Results from intracellular electrolyte shift


    Refeeding syndrome symptoms
    Refeeding Syndrome Symptoms Solution

    • Reduced serum levels of magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus

    • Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia

    • Interstitial fluid retention

    • Cardiac decompensation and arrest


    Refeeding syndrome prevention treatment
    Refeeding Syndrome Prevention/Treatment Solution

    • Monitor and supplement electrolytes, vitamins and minerals prior to and during infusion of PN until levels remain stable

    • Initiate feedings with 15-20 kcal/kg or 1000 kcals/day and 1.2-1.5 g protein/kg/day

    • Limit fluid to 800 ml + insensible losses (adjust per patient fluid tolerance and status)

    Fuhrman MP. Defensive strategies for avoiding and managing parenteral nutrition complications. P. 102. In Sharpening your skills as a nutrition support dietitian. DNS, 2003.


    Glycemic control in critical care
    Glycemic Control in Critical Care Solution

    • Until recently, BG<200 mg/dl was tolerated in critically ill patients.

    • Now greater attention is given to glycemic control due to evidence that glucose is associated with morbidity/mortality and risk of infection

    • New recommendation is to keep BG<150 mg/dl or as close to normal as possible

    Van den Berghe et al. NEJM, 2001


    Glycemic control in pn
    Glycemic Control in PN Solution

    • In critically ill patients, recommendation is to keep dextrose infusion <5 mg/kg/minute or <60% of total kcals.

    ASPEN Nutrition Support Practice Manual, 2005, p. 267


    Glycemic control in pn1
    Glycemic Control in PN Solution

    For Patients Not Previously on Insulin

    • Monitor blood glucose levels prior to initiating PN

    • When therapy is initiated, monitor BG q 4-6 hours and use sliding scale or insulin drip as needed

    • Add a portion of the previous day’s insulin to TPN to maintain blood glucose levels

    Charney P. A Spoonful of Sugar: Glycemic Control in the ICU. In Sharpening your skills as a nutrition support dietitian. DNS, 2003.


    Glycemic control in pn2
    Glycemic Control in PN Solution

    For Patients Previously on Insulin

    • Determine amount of insulin needed prior to illness

    • Determine amount of feedings to be given

    • Provide a portion of daily insulin needs in first PN along with sliding scale or insulin drip to maintain glucose levels (generally insulin needs will increase while on PN)

    Charney P. A Spoonful of Sugar: Glycemic Control in the ICU. In Sharpening your skills as a nutrition support dietitian. DNS, 2003.


    Regular insulin in pn
    Regular Insulin in PN Solution

    • Availability in TPN : 53 – 100%

    • Short half-life

    • Deliverycoincides with nutrient infusion


    Fluid excess
    Fluid Excess Solution

    • Critically ill pts and those with cardiac, renal, hepatic failure may require fluid restriction

    • May need to restrict total calories to reduce total volume

    • Use most concentrated source of PN components (70% dextrose = 2.38 kcal/ml; 20% lipid = 2 kcal/ml)

    • PPN may be contraindicated due to fluid volume of 2-4 liters


    Fluid deficit
    Fluid Deficit Solution

    • Patients with excessive losses may require sterile water added to the PN

    • Provide consistently required fluid volume in PN

    • Monitor I/O, weight, serum sodium, BUN, HCT, skin turgor, pulse rate, BP, urine specific gravity


    Electrolytes
    Electrolytes Solution

    • Electrolytes in PN should be given at a stable dose with intermittent requirements for supplementation given outside the PN

    • Sodium levels often reflect fluid distribution versus sodium status

    • Hypokalemia may be due to excessive GI losses, metabolic alkalosis, and refeeding

    • Hyperkalemia may be due to renal failure, metabolic acidosis, potassium administration, or hyperglycemia


    Acid base balance
    Acid-Base Balance Solution

    • Balance chloride and acetate to maintain/achieve equilibrium

    • The standard acetate/chloride ratio is 1:1

    • Increase proportion of chloride with metabolic alkalosis; increase proportion of acetate with metabolic acidosis

    • Consider chloride and acetate content of amino acids


    Metabolic acidosis etiology
    Metabolic Acidosis Etiology Solution

    • Increased renal or GI loss of bicarbonate

    • Addition of strong acid or underexcretion of H+ ion

    • Ketoacidosis

    • Renal failure

    • Lactic acidosis

    • Excessive Cl- administration


    Metabolic acidosis treatment
    Metabolic Acidosis Treatment Solution

    • Determine and treat underlying cause

    • Prove acetate forms of electrolytes with HCO3- losses

    • Decrease chloride concentration in TNA

    • Consider chloride concentration in other IV fluids


    Metabolic alkalosis etiology
    Metabolic Alkalosis Etiology Solution

    • loss of H+ ion from increased gastric losses

    • Excessive base administration

    • Contraction alkalosis


    Metabolic alkalosis treatment
    Metabolic Alkalosis Treatment Solution

    • Determine and treat underlying cause

    • Increase Cl- when alkalosis is due to diuretics or NG losses


    Transitional feeding
    Transitional Feeding Solution

    • Maintain full PN support until pt is tolerating 1/3 of needs via enteral route

    • Decrease TPN by 50% and continue to taper as the enteral feeding is advanced to total

    • TPN can reduce appetite if >25% of calorie needs are met via PN

    • TPN can be tapered when pt is consuming greater than 500 calories/d and d-c’d when meeting 60% of goal

    • TPN can be rapidly d-c’d if pt is receiving enteral feeding in amount great enough to maintain blood glucose levels


    Cessation of tpn
    Cessation of TPN Solution

    • Rebound hypoglycemia is a potential complication

    • Decrease the volume by 50% for 1-2 hours before discontinuing the solution to minimize risk

    • PPN can be stopped without concern for hypoglycemia


    Defense against pn complications
    Defense Against PN Complications Solution

    • Select appropriate patients to receive PN

    • Aseptic technique for insertion and site care of IV catheters

    • Do not overfeed

      • Maintain glycemic control <150-170 mg/dl

      • Limit lipids to 1 gm/kg and monitor TG levels

      • Adjust protein based on metabolic demand and organ function

    • Monitor fluid/electrolyte/mineral status

    • Provide standard vitamin and trace element preps daily


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