What shapes an ecosystem
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What Shapes an Ecosystem?. Section 4-2. Objectives. Explain the nature of interactions between organisms in different symbiotic relationships. Explain how cooperative and competitive relationships help maintain balance within an ecosystem.

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What Shapes an Ecosystem?

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What shapes an ecosystem

What Shapes an Ecosystem?

Section 4-2


Objectives

Objectives

  • Explain the nature of interactions between organisms in different symbiotic relationships.

  • Explain how cooperative and competitive relationships help maintain balance within an ecosystem.

  • Identify and explain the limiting factors that may affect the carrying capacity of a population within an ecosystem.

  • Predict how the use and flow of energy will be altered due to changes in a food web.

  • Predict the impact a natural or human caused environmental event may have on the diversity of different species in an ecosystem.


Talk fast

Talk Fast

We need to get our brains back in to Biology mode!

Rules:

  • You must get your partner to guess the words in any order.

  • You cannot use the word or part of the word.

  • You cannot spell the word or say, “It rhymes with…”.

  • You may act out or describe the words in order to help your partner.


Round 1

Round 1

Photosynthesis

Abiotic

Decomposer


Round 2

Round 2

Biotic

Detritivore

Trophic Level


Review

Review

  • Please have your “Ecological Sampling Activity” Activity.

  • We are going to label all consumers with what type of consumer they are:

    • Carnivores with a red “CA”.

    • Herbivores with a green “H”.

    • Omnivores with an orange “O”.

    • Decomposers/Detritovres with a purple “D ”.


Throw the ball

Throw the Ball

  • This section begins by review biotic and abiotic factors…

  • What is the difference between them?

  • Identify the following:

    • Bullfrog

    • Precipitation

    • Wind

    • Mushrooms

    • Bacteria

    • Humidity

    • Amount of sunlight


Throw the ball1

Throw the Ball

  • What is the main source of energy here on Earth?

  • What is an autotroph? Example?

  • What would happen if all autotrophs were removed from a food web?

  • What is a heterotroph? Example?


Throw the ball2

Throw the Ball

  • What is a carnivore?

  • Herbivore or carnivore, what are humans?

  • What is a detritivore?

  • What do we call a multiple complex food chains intertwined in an ecosystem?

  • What is a trophic level?


Throw the ball3

Throw the Ball

  • Which population in the marine food web would be the highest? How do you know?

  • Describe the relationship between the Sanderling and Grackle birds.

  • Describe the relationship between the Diamondback Terrapin and the Razor Clam.


Throw the ball4

Throw the Ball

  • An oil spill kills the Razor Clam population. Which other populations will be effected and how?


Objectives1

Objectives

  • Explain the nature of interactions between organisms in different symbiotic relationships.

  • Explain how cooperative and competitive relationships help maintain balance within an ecosystem.

  • Identify and explain the limiting factors that may affect the carrying capacity of a population within an ecosystem.

  • Predict how the use and flow of energy will be altered due to changes in a food web.

  • Predict the impact a natural or human caused environmental event may have on the diversity of different species in an ecosystem.


Community interactions

Community Interactions

  • Competition – organisms attempt to use the same resource at the same time.

  • Predation – one organism feeds on another.

  • Symbiosis – two organisms live closely together.


Community interactions1

Community Interactions


Other examples

Other Examples

  • 1. The bee and the flower. Bees fly from flower to flower gathering nectar, which they make into food, benefiting the bees. When they land in a flower, the bees get some pollen on their hairy bodies, and when they land in the next flower, some of the pollen from the first one rubs off, pollinating the plant. This benefits the plants. In this symbiotic relationship, the bees get to eat, and the flowering plants get to reproduce.

  • 2. A familiar wildlife scene in Africa is that of oxpeckers running over the backs of hippopotami and rhinoceroses. These birds rid their partners of injurious and annoying pests and in doing so obtain a ready supply of food.


Other examples1

Other Examples

  • 3. The bacteria and the human. A certain kind of bacteria lives in the intestines of humans and many other animals. The human can not digest all of the food that it eats. The bacteria eat the food that the human can not digest and partially digest it, allowing the human to finish the job. The bacteria benefit by getting food, and the human benefits by being able to digest the food it eats.

  • 4. Tapeworms are segmented flatworms that attach themselves to the insides of the intestines of animals such as cows, pigs, and humans. They get food by eating the host's partly digested food, depriving the host of nutrients.

  • 5. Barnacles attach themselves to the body of whales, turtles, and other large marine organisms. The barnacle benefits by finding a habitat where nutrients are available. The presence of barnacle populations does not appear to hamper or enhance the survival of the animals carrying them.


Other examples2

Other Examples

  • 6. Pseudoscorpions are small, predaceous arthropods, mostly less than 1 centimeter is length. These scropion like animals have pincers like scorpions, but lack a sting. Pseudoscorpions are common, but usually overlooked because of their small size. Because they generally remain hidden.

    A few species of pseudoscorpions move quickly by concealing themselves under the wing covers of large beetles. The pseudoscorpions gain the advantage of moving over wide areas while simultaneously being protected from predators. The beetle is, presumably, unaffected by the presence of the hitchhikers.


You decide quiz

You Decide Quiz

Class Quiz

  • ____________________________

  • ____________________________

  • ____________________________

  • ____________________________

  • ____________________________

  • ____________________________


Objectives2

Objectives

  • Explain the nature of interactions between organisms in different symbiotic relationships.

  • Explain how cooperative and competitive relationships help maintain balance within an ecosystem.

  • Identify and explain the limiting factors that may affect the carrying capacity of a population within an ecosystem.

  • Predict how the use and flow of energy will be altered due to changes in a food web.

  • Predict the impact a natural or human caused environmental event may have on the diversity of different species in an ecosystem.


Videos symbiosis review

Videos – Symbiosis Review

#3

#1

#2


Limiting factors

Limiting Factors

  • Take a look at this food web:

  • What would happen if this ecosystem went through a drought?

  • Limiting Factor – factor in an ecosystem that limits the growth of the ecosystem.

  • What organism’s population would decrease because of a drought?


Limiting factors1

Limiting Factors

Limiting Factors


Limiting factors2

Limiting Factors

Two Types of Limiting Factors:

  • Density Independent – factors that control a population no matter how large the population is.

  • Density Dependent – factors that only limit a population because of the populations size.


Limiting factors3

Limiting Factors

Density Independent Examples:

EXAMPLES:

Density Dependent Examples:

EXAMPLES:


Lynx and hare populations

Lynx and Hare Populations


Carrying capacity

Carrying Capacity

  • Take a look at the population graph of deer:

  • Why doesn’t the population just keep increasing?

  • Carrying Capacity – largest number of individuals that an environment can support.

Limiting Factors

DETERMINE

Carrying Capacity


Summary

Summary

  • How do limiting factors control the carrying capacity of a population?

  • What is the difference between density dependent and density independent limiting factors?


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