Classical chinese philosophies
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Classical Chinese Philosophies. 3 Major Classical Chinese Philosophical Movements. Confucianism Daoism/Taoism Legalism. Confucianism. Confucius (551-479 BCE) K’ung Fu-Tzu Lived during Period of Warring States Scholar – taught history, music, ethics Main Writings: The Analects

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Classical Chinese Philosophies

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Classical chinese philosophies

Classical Chinese Philosophies


3 major classical chinese philosophical movements

3 Major Classical Chinese Philosophical Movements

  • Confucianism

  • Daoism/Taoism

  • Legalism


Confucianism

Confucianism

  • Confucius (551-479 BCE)

    • K’ung Fu-Tzu

    • Lived during Period of Warring States

    • Scholar – taught history, music, ethics

    • Main Writings: The Analects

      • Promoted by his followers, such as Mencius


Confucianism1

Confucianism

  • Wanted to restore social order, harmony and good government to China

  • Ethical system based on relationships and personal virtue

  • Spoke of the ideal age of the early Zhou Dynasty

    • Perfect society

    • Superiors looked after dependents

    • Inferiors devoted to service


Confucianism2

Confucianism

  • Five Basic Relationships in Society

    • Ruler and Subject

    • Father and Son

    • Husband and Wife

    • Older Brother and Younger Brother

    • Friend and Friend


Confucianism3

Confucianism

  • Most of Confucius’ theories on relationships were based on the FAMILY

  • Filial Piety – Respect for parents and elders

    • Necessary for order in the world


Confucianism4

Confucianism

  • Argued that a Chinese gentleman was based on education and moral standards and NOT based on birth

  • Bureaucracy – Those who run the government

    • Courteous

    • Precise

    • Generous

    • Just (Fair)


Daoism taoism

Daoism/Taoism

  • Founded by Lao Tze (604-531 BCE)

    • Book: Tao-te-Ching (The Way of Virtue)

  • Human actions are not important

  • The most important part of society is the natural order of things

    • The Tao (The Way) – guides all things


Daoism taoism1

Daoism/Taoism

  • Search for knowledge and understanding of nature

  • To understand nothing, it is best to do nothing, to observe nature

    • Nature is not jealous, power-hungry

    • Does not argue about right and wrong, good or bad


Legalism

Legalism

  • Practical, political reaction to Confucianism

    • Founded by Han Feizi in 3rd century BCE

  • Powerful and efficient government was the key to restoring order

    • Use law to end civil war and restore harmony

    • Ruler should provide rewards for good subjects and punish those who are disobedient

    • Must control ideas and actions of people

    • Becomes basis for future dynasties

    • Favored by Shi Huangdi in the Qin Dynasty


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