Adapting legacy phone systems to voip
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Adapting Legacy Phone Systems to VoIP. Vincente D’Ingianni Director of Professional Services Binary Systems, Inc. [email protected] What We’ll Cover…. What’s inside the PSTN? What’s inside the IP network? VoIP gateways Connecting the IP network to the PSTN Bandwidth

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Adapting legacy phone systems to voip

Adapting Legacy Phone Systems to VoIP

Vincente D’Ingianni

Director of Professional Services

Binary Systems, Inc.

[email protected]


What we ll cover

What We’ll Cover…

  • What’s inside the PSTN?

  • What’s inside the IP network?

  • VoIP gateways

  • Connecting the IP network to the PSTN

  • Bandwidth

  • Remote PSTN users – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP users – “The New Way”

  • Remote PSTN locations – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP locations – “The New Way”

  • Do I need a Softswitch?

  • Do I need a VoIP carrier?


The legacy pstn

The Legacy PSTN

Subscribers

Enterprise Network

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network

Enterprise Network

Subscribers


What s inside the pstn

What’s Inside the PSTN?

Subscribers

Enterprise Network

Class 5

End Office Switch

Class 4

Tandem Switch

Public Switched Telephone Network

Enterprise Network

Subscribers


Forgetting the complexity

Forgetting the Complexity

All Routing Logic is managed by the

Service Provider’s Network – Not yours.

Subscribers

Enterprise Network

PSTN

Enterprise Network

Subscribers

Public Switched Telephone Network


What we ll cover1

What We’ll Cover…

  • What’s inside the PSTN?

  • What’s inside the IP network?

  • VoIP gateways

  • Connecting the IP network to the PSTN

  • Bandwidth

  • Remote PSTN users – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP users – “The New Way”

  • Remote PSTN locations – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP locations – “The New Way”

  • Do I need a Softswitch?

  • Do I need a VoIP carrier?


Enter the ip network

IP Network

Enter the IP Network

Subscribers

Enterprise Network

PSTN

Enterprise Network

Subscribers

Public Internet or Private WAN


Focusing on voip

IP Network

Focusing on VoIP

Subscribers

Enterprise Network

VoIP gives you the option to take control of your Communication Network

Enterprise Network

Subscribers

Public Internet or Private WAN


What s inside an ip network

What’s Inside an IP Network?

In most cases, IP Routing Logic is still managed by a Service Provider’s Network

– Not yours

Subscribers

Enterprise Network

Firewall

Routers

Routers

Routers

Firewall

Enterprise Network

Subscribers

Public Internet or Private WAN


Forgetting the complexity1

IP Network

Forgetting the Complexity

VoIP Communication Protocols, such as SIP & H.323, allow control of your communication routing without interfering with the Service Providers Network

Subscribers

Enterprise Network

Enterprise Network

Subscribers

Public Internet or Private WAN


What we ll cover2

What We’ll Cover…

  • What’s inside the PSTN?

  • What’s inside the IP network?

  • VoIP gateways

  • Connecting the IP network to the PSTN

  • Bandwidth

  • Remote PSTN users – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP users – “The New Way”

  • Remote PSTN locations – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP locations – “The New Way”

  • Do I need a Softswitch?

  • Do I need a VoIP carrier?


What are voip media gateways

  • PSTN

  • Ports

  • Analog

  • C.O

  • T1/E1

What are VoIP Media Gateways?

VoIP Media Gateways provide the bridge between Legacy Phone Systems and VoIP

Applications/

Management

Processing

PSTN

  • Voice

  • Compression

  • Echo

  • Cancellation

  • Silence

  • Suppression

  • IP

  • Processing

  • IP

  • TCP

  • UDP

  • RTP

IP Voice

IP Network

Ethernet

PPP

Frame Relay

ATM

  • Fax

  • Demodulation

  • Handshaking

  • Fax

  • Demodulation

  • Handshaking

Signaling

Interworking

VoIP <-> PSTN

Signaling

Interworking

VoIP<-> PSTN

PBX


Adapting legacy phone systems to voip

Analog VoIP Gateways

PSTN

Vega 50

Analog VoIP Gateway

IP Voice

IP Network

Ethernet

PPP

Frame Relay

ATM

  • Analog Ports for FXS or FXO Signaling

  • Supports PSTN/PBX or Telephone Lines

  • Connection to the IP Network Via 100Base-T Ethernet Interface

  • SIP, H.323

  • Selectable Coders Per Channel: G.711, G.723, G.729

  • T.38 Fax Relay

PBX


Digital trunking voip gateways

Digital Trunking VoIP Gateways

PSTN

Vega 400

Trunking VoIP Gateway

IP Voice

IP Network

Ethernet

PPP

Frame Relay

ATM

  • Supports PSTN/PBX Digital Trunks

  • T1 / E1 ISDN, North American CAS, R2

  • Connection to the IP Network Via 100Base-T Ethernet Interface

  • SIP, H.323

  • Selectable Coders Per Channel: G.711, G.723, G.729

  • T.38 Fax Relay

PBX


What we ll cover3

What We’ll Cover…

  • What’s inside the PSTN?

  • What’s inside the IP network?

  • VoIP gateways

  • Connecting the IP network to the PSTN

  • Bandwidth

  • Remote PSTN users – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP users – “The New Way”

  • Remote PSTN locations – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP locations – “The New Way”

  • Do I need a Softswitch?

  • Do I need a VoIP carrier?


Bridging the networks

Bridging the Networks

FXO

Lines

Digital

Trunks

PSTN

VegaStream

Analog VoIP Gateway

VegaStream

Trunking VoIP Gateway

IP Network

Ethernet

Ethernet


Bridging the networks cont

Bridging the Networks (cont.)

Firewall

VegaStream

Analog VoIP Gateway

VegaStream

Trunking VoIP Gateway

Routers

Routers

Ethernet

Ethernet

Routers

Firewall

IP Network


Bridging the networks cont1

Bridging the Networks (cont.)

PSTN

Class 5

End Office Switch

FXO

Lines

Digital

Trunks

VegaStream

Analog VoIP Gateway

VegaStream

Trunking VoIP Gateway

Class 4

Tandem Switch


Bridging public and private networks

Bridging Public and Private Networks

FXO

Lines

User Side

Digital

Trunks

PSTN

VegaStream

Analog VoIP Gateway

VegaStream

Trunking VoIP Gateway

IP Network

Ethernet

Ethernet

Network Side

Digital

Trunks

FXS

Lines

Private Extensions

Enterprise Network


The leaky pbx

The “Leaky” PBX

Enterprise Network

Enterprise Network

FXO

Lines

PSTN

Network Side

Digital

Trunks

IP Network

Ethernet

Ethernet

  • Using Legacy PBX Routing functionality, users may dial a prefix to bypass the PSTN

    • Calls are routed via VoIP to remote locations/countries

    • Standard PSTN Toll charges are bypassed

    • “Enterprising Enterprises” resell the ability to terminate calls on their local PSTN connection so other VoIP users can benefit (not necessarily legal)


What we ll cover4

What We’ll Cover…

  • What’s inside the PSTN?

  • What’s inside the IP network?

  • VoIP gateways

  • Connecting the IP network to the PSTN

  • Bandwidth

  • Remote PSTN users – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP users – “The New Way”

  • Remote PSTN locations – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP locations – “The New Way”

  • Do I need a Softswitch?

  • Do I need a VoIP carrier?


Bandwidth requirements

Bandwidth Requirements

Enterprise Network

Enterprise Network

FXO

Lines

PSTN

Network Side

Digital

Trunks

IP Network

Ethernet

Ethernet

  • Calculate the number of calls that you will be making simultaneously over your IP connection

    • Estimate approximately 80-90 kbps uncompressed per call

    • A T3 (28 T1s) of voice will fill a 100 Mb Ethernet link


Bandwidth requirements1

Bandwidth Requirements

  • Most cable modems provide asymmetrical bandwidth

    • 3 Mb downstream is popular

    • 256K upstream is typical

  • Don’t expect to force an entire trunk worth of voice through a cable modem or DSL

Cable

Modem

256K

Upstream

Vega 400 Trunking

VoIP Gateway

E1 PRI


What we ll cover5

What We’ll Cover…

  • What’s inside the PSTN?

  • What’s inside the IP network?

  • VoIP gateways

  • Connecting the IP network to the PSTN

  • Bandwidth

  • Remote PSTN users – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP users – “The New Way”

  • Remote PSTN locations – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP locations – “The New Way”

  • Do I need a Softswitch?

  • Do I need a VoIP carrier?


Pots line connected to a pbx co

POTS Line connected to a PBX/CO

PBX/CO

POTS Line

  • The Switch provides the “Talk Battery” to power a phone

    • The switch provides the dial tone

    • The phone generates the digits


Foreign exchange office fxo

Foreign Exchange Office (FXO)

PBX/CO

FXO

Private

Network

  • Foreign Exchange Office (FXO)

  • Emulates a telephone set connects to a standard line side interface

  • of the PBX or central office

  • This is the way that Interexchange carriers were forced to connect with AT&T before equal access

    • Carriers would purchase simple lines in each city to create a POP

    • These lines were directly connected into their switching networks

    • Subscribers dialed 7-digit access numbers to receive dial tone from the carrier


Foreign exchange station fxs

Foreign Exchange Station (FXS)

FXS

POTS Line

Private

Network

Foreign Exchange Station (FXS)

Emulates a switch port connects to a standard telephone line

Signaling can be loop start or ground start


Extensions use a combination of fxo and fxs

Extensions use a combination of FXO and FXS

PBX/CO

FXO

FXS

POTS Line

Private

Network

Combination of FXO/FXS allows a remote station to appear as a standard line:

  • Foreign Exchange Office (FXO)

  • Emulates a telephone set connects to a standard line side interface

  • of the PBX/CO

  • Foreign Exchange Station (FXS)

  • Emulates a switch port connects to a standard telephone line

  • Signaling can be loop start or ground start


What we ll cover6

What We’ll Cover…

  • What’s inside the PSTN?

  • What’s inside the IP network?

  • VoIP gateways

  • Connecting the IP network to the PSTN

  • Bandwidth

  • Remote PSTN users – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP users – “The New Way”

  • Remote PSTN locations – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP locations – “The New Way”

  • Do I need a Softswitch?

  • Do I need a VoIP carrier?


Remote voip users

Remote VoIP Users

Subscribers

Enterprise Network

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network

Enterprise Network

Subscribers


Remote lines

Remote Lines

Subscribers

Enterprise Network

PSTN


Adding a voip network

IP Network

Adding a VoIP Network

Subscribers

Enterprise Network

PSTN

Public Internet or Private WAN

Cable Modems or DSL can be used for low numbers of remote users.


Adding voip gateways

IP Network

Adding VoIP Gateways

Subscribers

Enterprise Network

PSTN

Vega 50

Analog FXS

VoIP Gateway

Vega 50

Analog FXO

VoIP Gateway

Public Internet or Private WAN


Bypassing the pstn

IP Network

Bypassing the PSTN

Subscribers

Enterprise Network

PSTN

Vega 50

Analog FXS

VoIP Gateway

Vega 50

Analog FXO

VoIP Gateway

Public Internet or Private WAN


Remote user connected via voip

IP Network

Remote User Connected via VoIP

Subscribers

Enterprise Network

Call routing between VoIP Gateways is configured locally.

Vega 50

Analog FXS

VoIP Gateway

Vega 50

Analog FXO

VoIP Gateway

Public Internet or Private WAN


Configuring local fxo extensions

Configuring Local FXO Extensions

Enterprise Network

Analog FXO

VoIP Gateway

192.168.1.123


Configuring local fxo routing

Configuring Local FXO Routing

Enterprise Network

Analog FXO

VoIP Gateway

192.168.1.123


Configuring remote fxs extensions

Configuring Remote FXS Extensions

Subscribers

Analog FXS

VoIP Gateway

192.168.1.202


Configuring remote fxs routing

Configuring Remote FXS Routing

Subscribers

Analog FXS

VoIP Gateway

192.168.1.202


Remote users connected via voip

IP Network

Remote Users connected via VoIP

Subscribers

Enterprise Network

Subscribers maintain all feature functionality as local users on the PBX.

Vega 50

Analog FXS

VoIP Gateway

Vega 50

Analog FXO

VoIP Gateway

Public Internet or Private WAN


Adding ip only users

IP Network

Adding IP-Only Users

Subscribers

IP Phones

Enterprise Network

Vega 50

Analog FXS

VoIP Gateway

Vega 50

Analog FXO

VoIP Gateway

  • An IP phone is simply a single-port VoIP media gateway


What we ll cover7

What We’ll Cover…

  • What’s inside the PSTN?

  • What’s inside the IP network?

  • VoIP gateways

  • Connecting the IP network to the PSTN

  • Bandwidth

  • Remote PSTN users – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP users – “The New Way”

  • Remote PSTN locations – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP locations – “The New Way”

  • Do I need a Softswitch?

  • Do I need a VoIP carrier?


Trunk signaling methods

Trunk Signaling Methods

  • In-Band Signaling

    • CAS – Channel Associated Signaling

    • R2

    • E&M Wink Start

    • FGD

Combined Voice and Signaling Channel

  • Out-of-Band Signaling

    • ISDN / Q.931

    • SS7

D-Channel

Bearer Channel


Network vs user side isdn

Network vs. User Side ISDN

  • Network side ISDN

    • Network side ISDN provides a standard PRI interface to a PBX and mimics the behavior of legacy phone switches

  • User Side ISDN

    • User side ISDN provides a standard ISDN PRI interface to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

Network Side

User Side

D-Channel

PSTN

Bearer Channel

Clock Timing


What we ll cover8

What We’ll Cover…

  • What’s inside the PSTN?

  • What’s inside the IP network?

  • VoIP gateways

  • Connecting the IP network to the PSTN

  • Bandwidth

  • Remote PSTN users – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP users – “The New Way”

  • Remote PSTN locations – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP locations – “The New Way”

  • Do I need a Softswitch?

  • Do I need a VoIP carrier?


Remote voip locations pstn connectivity

Remote VoIP Locations – PSTN Connectivity

Subscribers

Enterprise Network

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network

Enterprise Network

Subscribers


Remote voip locations connecting locations via pstn

Remote VoIP Locations – Connecting Locations via PSTN

Enterprise Network

Network Side

ISDN PRI

User Side

PSTN

User Side

ISDN PRI

Enterprise Network


Remote voip locations adding voip

IP Network

Remote VoIP Locations - Adding VoIP

Enterprise Network

PSTN

Enterprise Network


Remote voip locations adding voip1

IP Network

Remote VoIP Locations – Adding VoIP

Enterprise Network

PSTN

Enterprise Network


Remote voip locations adding voip gateways

IP Network

Remote VoIP Locations – Adding VoIP Gateways

Enterprise Network

Vega 400

PRI VoIP Gateway

User Side

PSTN

ISDN PRI

Network Side

Network Side

ISDN PRI

User Side

Vega 400

PRI VoIP Gateway

Enterprise Network


Remote voip locations pstn bypass

IP Network

Remote VoIP Locations – PSTN Bypass

Enterprise Network

Vega 400

PRI VoIP Gateway

User Side

ISDN PRI

Network Side

Network Side

ISDN PRI

User Side

Vega 400

PRI VoIP Gateway

Enterprise Network


Remote voip locations adding ip only users

IP Network

Remote VoIP Locations – Adding IP-Only Users

IP Phones

Enterprise Network

Vega 400

PRI VoIP Gateway

Vega 400

PRI VoIP Gateway

Enterprise Network


What we ll cover9

What We’ll Cover…

  • What’s inside the PSTN?

  • What’s inside the IP network?

  • VoIP gateways

  • Connecting the IP network to the PSTN

  • Bandwidth

  • Remote PSTN users – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP users – “The New Way”

  • Remote PSTN locations – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP locations – “The New Way”

  • Do I need a Softswitch?

  • Do I need a VoIP carrier?


Do i need a softswitch

Do I Need a Softswitch?

  • Ask these questions:

    • Does your existing PBX have the features that you need?

    • What VoIP control protocols do your gateways/endpoints support?

    • How many VoIP gateways/endpoints do you need?


Does your existing pbx have the features that you need

Does Your Existing PBX Have the Features That You Need?

  • Remote VoIP users can transparently utilize features from the legacy PBX/switch

    • Virtual Private Networks for Voice can be created via existing PBX Routing Tables

    • Features such as T.38 Fax Relay and RFC 2833 digit transport provide reliable communication over low bandwidth connections


What voip control protocols do gateways support

What VoIP Control Protocols do Gateways Support?

  • MGCP and MEGACO are Master-Slave protocols

    • MGCP and MEGACO require a Call Agent/Softswitch to instruct the Endpoint to perform all functionality

    • If communication with the Call Agent is lost, the endpoint cannot function

    • These protocols require a Softswitch

  • SIP and H.323 are peer-to-peer protocols

    • SIP and H.323 gateways offer internal routing tables and features that often rival the legacy PBX or Key System itself

    • If communication with the Proxy/Gatekeeper/Softswitch is lost, internal routing tables may be used. For example, “911”

  • SIP is continually evolving to support next generation features


How many voip endpoints do you have

IP Network

How Many VoIP Endpoints Do You Have?

Softswitches, SIP proxies, and H.323 gatekeepers provide a single point of configuration for advanced network features

Softswitch

Feature Server

Enterprise Network

Vega 400

Trunking VoIP Gateway

Vega 400

Trunking VoIP Gateway

Enterprise Network

IP Phone

IP Phone


What we ll cover10

What We’ll Cover…

  • What’s inside the PSTN?

  • What’s inside the IP network?

  • VoIP gateways

  • Connecting the IP network to the PSTN

  • Bandwidth

  • Remote PSTN users – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP users – “The New Way”

  • Remote PSTN locations – “The Old Way”

  • Remote VoIP locations – “The New Way”

  • Do I need a Softswitch?

  • Do I need a VoIP carrier?


Do i need a voip carrier

Do I Need a VoIP Carrier?

VoIP Carrier’s

Softswitch / Feature Server

Enterprise Network

Enterprise Network

FXO

Lines

PSTN

Network Side

Digital

Trunks

IP Network

Vega 50

Analog VoIP Gateway

Ethernet

Vega 400

Trunking VoIP Gateway

Ethernet

  • VoIP Carriers provide alternate IP-based call routing to remote endpoints via the public Internet

    • Calls are routed via VoIP to remote locations/countries and standard PSTN Toll charges are bypassed


Can i cut the cord to the pstn

Can I Cut the Cord to the PSTN?

VoIP Carrier’s

Softswitch / Feature Server

Enterprise Network

Enterprise Network

Network Side

Digital

Trunks

IP Network

Vega 50

Analog VoIP Gateway

Ethernet

Vega 400

Trunking VoIP Gateway

Ethernet

  • If you are satisfied with the reliability of your high-speed internet provider and VoIP carrier’s feature set and destination choices, you may choose to cut the cord

  • But first, ensure that your gateways, as well as, your VoIP Carrier’s network support T.38 faxes and a compatible modem passthrough functionality


Key points to remember

Key Points to Remember

  • Don’t underestimate the complexity of the PSTN and IP network

  • Choose the right VoIP Endpoint for your application

    • Follow the industry – Use SIP for new installations

    • Analog FXS or FXO Gateways for lines and key systems

    • Digital Trunking Gateways for PBXs

    • IP phones for new user installations

    • Be sure you can support T.38 for faxes and bypass for modems

    • Be sure you have a big enough IP pipe to add voice

  • SIP and H.323 VoIP Gateways can provide stand-alone routing and feature functionality

  • Use a Softswitch to manage numerous gateways and advanced features

  • VoIP carriers can provide connectivity beyond your private network

  • Yes, you can cut the cord to the PSTN!


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