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Levels of O rganization of L iving T hings. Big things are often made up of smaller parts. Different kinds of l i t t l e p e i c e s or units make up different parts of a whole. Living things. are made up of cells. light microscope. scanning electron microscope.

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Levels of O rganization of L iving T hings

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Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

Levels of Organization of Living Things


Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

Big things are often made up of smaller parts


Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

Different kinds of littlepeices or units make up different parts of a whole


Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

Living things

are made up of cells

light microscope

scanning electron microscope


Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

Cells  Tissues  Organs  Systems

Cell:

Osteocyte

(student)

Tissue:

Bone tissue

(class)

Organ:

Bone

(grade)

Organ system:

Skeletal system

(school)


Basic functions of the cell and living organisms

Basic Functions of the Cell and Living Organisms

  • Metabolism

    • Respiration

    • Nutrition

    • Digestion

    • Excretion

  • Circulation

  • Growth

  • Reproduction


  • Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Metabolism:

    Respiration


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Cells need oxygen and energy

    Cells release

    carbon dioxyde (CO2) into their surrounding and

    ENERGY

    Cells take oxygen (O2) from their surrounding

    Cells also take glucose (C6H12O6) from their surrounding

    This process is called Respiration

    O2+C6H12O6CO2 +H2O+energy


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Because of cellular respiration,

    CO2

    O2

    C6H12O6

    living organisms give off waste products through a process called excretion.


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Because each and every cell in an organism depends on respiration and excretion,

    That organism must have some sort of circulationsystem in place to bring each cell what it needs, and carry away its waste products

    DeliveryPickup


    Interconnected systems

    Interconnected systems

    CO2

    O2

    nutrients

    foot cells


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    When an organism is at rest, it needs less energy.Therefore its metabolism,(respiration andexcretion) and circulation are slow.


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    When an organism is at work, it needs more energy.

    Therefore its metabolism,(respiration andexcretion) and circulation are fast.


    In the same way that different sytems in the body perform different functions

    In the same way that different sytems in the body perform different functions…


    Different parts of the cell called organelles perform different functions

    …different parts of the cell, called organelles, perform different functions.


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Organism

    Cells Tissues Organs  Systems

    System

    Organ

    Tissue

    (basic unit of life)

    Cell

    (parts of the cell)

    Organelles

    Molecules

    Atoms


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    The Basic Unit of Life: The Cell

    Antony van

    Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)

    Robert Hooke

    (1635-1703)


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    chloroplast

    nucleus

    mitochondria

    endoplasmic

    reticulum

    vacuole

    cell wall

    MORE

    POWER


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Plasma Membrane

    • keeps the contents of the cell (nucleus and cytoplasm) together

    • The pores control the movement of atoms, molecules (O2,CO2 ) and simple sugars (food) accross the m


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Nucleus

    • Control center of the cell

    • Contains DNA

    • DNA contains all the information for cells to

      • perform their functions

      • reproduce


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Cytoplasm

    • Mostly water

    • contents of a cell -the nucleus.


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

    • Looks rough when ribosomes are attached to it

    • Site of protein synthesis


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Golgi apparatus

    • sorts and correctly ships the proteins

    • certain cellular functions may stop if it is out of order (Cystic Fibrosis)


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Mitochondria

    • site of cellular respiration

    • O2 + C6H12O6CO2 + H2O + energy

    • Number of mitochondria in cells depends on the cell’s usual energy requirements


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Vesicles

    • means "small vessel

    • helps

      • store

      • transport

    • products produced by the cell


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Lysosomes

    • contain enzymes that cause the digestion of proteins

    • pick up

      • harmful foreign invaders (bacteria)

      • unwanted substances (old food)

      • worn-out organelles

    • break them into smaller pieces that are either

      • Recycled

      • Expelled from the c


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Cytoskeleton

    • Provides structure

    • Microtubules are hollow tubes

      • Enable c movement

    • Actin filaments are thinner

      • Enable cellular contraction

    In a dividing cell


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    The Plant Cell

    • In addition to all the organelles of the animal cell, plant cells have

    • a cell wall

    • a vacuole

    • chloroplasts


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Cell Wall

    • Provides protection and support for plants

    • Materials cannot get through

    • Plasmodesmata allow

      • the transport of materials accross cell wall

      • cell to cell communication


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Vacuole

    • Usually in the center of plant cells

    • Stores large amounts of

      • Water

      • sugars (molecules), ions (atoms)

    Molecules

    Atoms


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    Chloroplasts

    • Contain green pigments called chlorophylls which trap light energy from the sun

    • Site of photo-synthesis

    • Convert light energy of the sun into chemical energypackaged in sugar molecules


    Levels of o rganization of l iving t hings

    endoplasmic

    reticulum

    mitochondria

    nucleus

    vacuole

    chloroplasts

    cell wall


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