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Levels of O rganization of L iving T hings

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Levels of O rganization of L iving T hings. Big things are often made up of smaller parts. Different kinds of l i t t l e p e i c e s or units make up different parts of a whole. Living things. are made up of cells. light microscope. scanning electron microscope.

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Presentation Transcript
slide4

Living things

are made up of cells

light microscope

scanning electron microscope

slide5

Cells  Tissues  Organs  Systems

Cell:

Osteocyte

(student)

Tissue:

Bone tissue

(class)

Organ:

Bone

(grade)

Organ system:

Skeletal system

(school)

basic functions of the cell and living organisms
Basic Functions of the Cell and Living Organisms
  • Metabolism
        • Respiration
        • Nutrition
        • Digestion
        • Excretion
  • Circulation
  • Growth
  • Reproduction
slide7

Metabolism:

Respiration

slide8

Cells need oxygen and energy

Cells release

carbon dioxyde (CO2) into their surrounding and

ENERGY

Cells take oxygen (O2) from their surrounding

Cells also take glucose (C6H12O6) from their surrounding

This process is called Respiration

O2+C6H12O6CO2 +H2O+energy

slide9

Because of cellular respiration,

CO2

O2

C6H12O6

living organisms give off waste products through a process called excretion.

slide10

Because each and every cell in an organism depends on respiration and excretion,

That organism must have some sort of circulationsystem in place to bring each cell what it needs, and carry away its waste products

DeliveryPickup

interconnected systems
Interconnected systems

CO2

O2

nutrients

foot cells

slide12

When an organism is at rest, it needs less energy.Therefore its metabolism,(respiration andexcretion) and circulation are slow.

slide13

When an organism is at work, it needs more energy.

Therefore its metabolism,(respiration andexcretion) and circulation are fast.

slide16

Organism

Cells Tissues Organs  Systems

System

Organ

Tissue

(basic unit of life)

Cell

(parts of the cell)

Organelles

Molecules

Atoms

slide17

The Basic Unit of Life: The Cell

Antony van

Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)

Robert Hooke

(1635-1703)

slide18

chloroplast

nucleus

mitochondria

endoplasmic

reticulum

vacuole

cell wall

MORE

POWER

slide20

Plasma Membrane

  • keeps the contents of the cell (nucleus and cytoplasm) together
  • The pores control the movement of atoms, molecules (O2,CO2 ) and simple sugars (food) accross the m
slide21

Nucleus

  • Control center of the cell
  • Contains DNA
  • DNA contains all the information for cells to
    • perform their functions
    • reproduce
slide22

Cytoplasm

  • Mostly water
  • contents of a cell -the nucleus.
slide23

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

  • Looks rough when ribosomes are attached to it
  • Site of protein synthesis
slide24

Golgi apparatus

  • sorts and correctly ships the proteins
  • certain cellular functions may stop if it is out of order (Cystic Fibrosis)
slide25

Mitochondria

  • site of cellular respiration
  • O2 + C6H12O6CO2 + H2O + energy
  • Number of mitochondria in cells depends on the cell’s usual energy requirements
slide26

Vesicles

  • means "small vessel
  • helps
    • store
    • transport
  • products produced by the cell
slide27

Lysosomes

  • contain enzymes that cause the digestion of proteins
  • pick up
    • harmful foreign invaders (bacteria)
    • unwanted substances (old food)
    • worn-out organelles
  • break them into smaller pieces that are either
    • Recycled
    • Expelled from the c
slide28

Cytoskeleton

  • Provides structure
  • Microtubules are hollow tubes
    • Enable c movement
  • Actin filaments are thinner
    • Enable cellular contraction

In a dividing cell

slide29

The Plant Cell

  • In addition to all the organelles of the animal cell, plant cells have
  • a cell wall
  • a vacuole
  • chloroplasts
slide30

Cell Wall

  • Provides protection and support for plants
  • Materials cannot get through
  • Plasmodesmata allow
    • the transport of materials accross cell wall
    • cell to cell communication
slide31

Vacuole

  • Usually in the center of plant cells
  • Stores large amounts of
    • Water
    • sugars (molecules), ions (atoms)

Molecules

Atoms

slide32

Chloroplasts

  • Contain green pigments called chlorophylls which trap light energy from the sun
  • Site of photo-synthesis
  • Convert light energy of the sun into chemical energypackaged in sugar molecules
slide33

endoplasmic

reticulum

mitochondria

nucleus

vacuole

chloroplasts

cell wall

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