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The Triumphs of a Crusade. Chapter 21, Section 2 Notes. Objectives. Identify the goal of the freedom riders Explain how civil rights activism forced President Kennedy to act against segregation State the motives of the 1963 March on Washington

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The triumphs of a crusade

The Triumphs of a Crusade

Chapter 21, Section 2 Notes


  • Identify the goal of the freedom riders

  • Explain how civil rights activism forced President Kennedy to act against segregation

  • State the motives of the 1963 March on Washington

  • Describe the tactics tried by civil rights organizations to secure the passage of the Voting Rights Act

Main idea and terms names

Civil Rights activists broke through racial barriers. Their activism prompted landmark legislation.

Freedom riders

James Meredith

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Freedom Summer

Fannie Lou Hamer

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Main Idea and Terms/Names

Freedom riders
Freedom Riders activism prompted landmark legislation.

  • Civil Rights activists would ride busses to test the Supreme Court decision that banned segregation on buses and in bus terminals

  • Provoking a violent reaction to force the JFK administration to enforce the law

  • Riders were tormented and beaten

Freedom riders1
Freedom Riders activism prompted landmark legislation.

  • Newspaper coverage and the violence provoked JFK to send federal marshals to protect the riders

  • Segregation in all interstate travel facilities was banned

Integrating ole miss
Integrating Ole Miss activism prompted landmark legislation.

  • Air Force Veteran James Meredith

    won a federal court case that allowed him to enroll in the all-white University of Mississippi (Ole Miss)

  • Governor Ross Barnett refused to let him register

  • Kennedy ordered federal marshals to escort Meredith

  • Riots broke out and resulted in 2 deaths

  • Federal officials accompanied Meredith to class to protect him

Birmingham activism prompted landmark legislation.

  • Strictly enforced its segregation

  • Reputation for racial violence

  • Reverend Shuttlesworth, MLK, and the SCLC tested their non-violence

  • MLK and others were arrested during a nonviolent demonstration

    • MLK wrote Letters from a Birmingham Jail

Birmingham activism prompted landmark legislation.

  • With MLK out of jail, the SCLC planned a children’s march in Birmingham

    • Police Commissioner “Bull” Connor arrested them

    • Later, the police met the marchers with high pressure fire hoses and attack dogs

    • TV cameras captured the scene

  • Birmingham officials finally ended segregation

  • Convinced JFK to write a civil rights act

Marching in birmingham
Marching in Birmingham activism prompted landmark legislation.

Kennedy takes a stand
Kennedy Takes a Stand activism prompted landmark legislation.

  • June 11, 1963 – JFK sends troops to force Gov. Wallace to desegregate the U of Alabama

  • He demanded that Congress pass a civil rights bill

  • Hours later Medgar Evers, an NAACP secretary was murdered

  • A new militancy developed – “Freedom Now!”

March on washington
March on Washington activism prompted landmark legislation.

  • To show support for JFK’s civil rights bill, a march on Washington was formed

  • Aug. 28, 1963, 250,000 people assembled in Washington

  • MLK gave his “I have a Dream” speech

    • Appeals for peace and harmony

Violence persists
Violence Persists activism prompted landmark legislation.

  • Two weeks after the I have a Dream speech, four girls were killed in a Birmingham church

  • Two months later, JFK is assassinated

  • LBJ pledges to carry out JFK’s work

    • Passes Civil Rights Act of 1964

    • Prohibited discrimination

    • Gave equal access to public accommodations

Fighting for voting rights
Fighting for Voting Rights activism prompted landmark legislation.

  • CORE and SNCC worked to register as many African-American voters as possible

    • Project is known as Freedom Summer

    • Attempt to influence Congress to pass as voting rights bill

  • College Students were trained to help the project

  • Met with resistance and violence

A new political party
A New Political Party activism prompted landmark legislation.

  • African Americans needed a political voice

  • SNCC organized the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

  • Fannie Lou Hamer spoke at the Democratic National Convention in 1964

    • Support poured in for the MFDP

    • Civil Rights leaders compromised with the Democratic Party (MFDP got two seats in Congress)

Selma campaign
Selma Campaign activism prompted landmark legislation.

  • SNCC led a voting rights campaign in Selma, Alabama

  • After a demonstrator was shot, MLK organized a 50 mile march to Montgomery

  • Mayhem broke out and TV crews caught police beating and gassing marchers

  • Johnson presented a voting rights act and gave marchers federal protection

Voting rights act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965 activism prompted landmark legislation.

  • Eliminated literacy tests

  • Local officials could not deny suffrage

  • The percentage of African American voters tripled in the south