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Biochemistry Notes. You are what you eat!?. Chemistry – study of what substances are made of and how they change and combine . Each different kind of atom is a different element . Examples of elements: C – Carbon H – Hydrogen

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Biochemistry Notes

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Biochemistry notes

  • Biochemistry Notes

You are what you eat!?

Biochemistry notes

Chemistry – study of what substances are made of and how they change and combine.

  • Each different kind of atom is a

  • different element.

  • Examples of elements:

  • C – Carbon H – Hydrogen

  • O – Oxygen N – Nitrogen

  • Two or more elements combine to

  • make a compound.

  • Examples of compounds –

  • H2O, CO2, HCl, NaCl

Biochemistry notes

  • Compounds are classified into 2 groups:

    1. Inorganic Compounds – come from nonliving substances (In = notOrganic = living)

  • Ex: H2O is the universal solvent because of its bent molecular shape and polarity. Water dissolves other polar compounds by pulling them apart like a magnet separates metals.

Positive and negative ends like the poles of a magnet.

*70-80% of your body is water

2. Organic Compounds – come from livingsubstances

Biochemistry notes

Biochemistry – study of the chemistry of living organisms

  • All organic compounds will have the element carboninthem

    Exception: CO2 is not organic (CO2 is not

    composed of living substances.)

  • Organic compounds are usually complex compounds with

  • many atoms in their structure.

    Ex: Glucose – C6H12O6

  • Four kinds of organic compounds:

    1. Carbohydrates

    2. Proteins

    3. Lipids

    4. Nucleic acids – DNA and RNA

Biochemistry notes


***Polysaccharides are composed of monosaccharides bonded together.Polysaccharides must be first broken down to monosaccharides forcellsto use as energy.

Biochemistry notes


  • Structural Formula of Monosaccharide:

Biochemistry notes


Structural Formula of Amino Acid:

Biochemistry notes

General Structure of Amino Acid



Biochemistry notes


Amino Acids

Biochemistry notes


Structural Formula of Lipid:

Biochemistry notes

Nucleic Acids

Biochemistry notes


  • Catalyst—substance that accelerates the rate of a

  • chemical reaction

    Ex: hydrogen peroxide being broken down intowater and oxygen

H2O2 H2O + O2 add catalase for FASTER REACTION!

  • Enzyme – a kind of catalyst found only in living things

  • Enzymes are proteins

  • Enzymes change only the speed of the reaction

  • Enzymes are never used up in a reaction, so they can be used

  • over and over

  • Enzymes are specific for the reaction they catalyze

    Ex: Saltines and amylase

Starch Sugar

  • Enzymes allow digestion to occur faster; otherwise the

  • hamburger you ate last week might still be in your stomach!

    • By using enzymes to break chemical bonds in food molecules,

    • organisms release energy for life processes

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