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RDA vocabularies and concepts . Gordon Dunsire Depute Director, Centre for Digital Library Research University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland Presented to staff of the National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh 20 Jul 2009. Overview. Part 1: Introduction to RDA

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Rda vocabularies and concepts l.jpg

RDA vocabularies and concepts

Gordon Dunsire

Depute Director, Centre for Digital Library Research

University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland

Presented to staff of the National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh

20 Jul 2009


Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • Part 1: Introduction to RDA

    • Benefits to users and cataloguers

    • Collaboration with other communities/standards

  • Q/A and break

  • Part 2: Introduction to the Semantic Web

    • Concepts and methods

    • Role of the library community

  • Q/A and break

  • Part 3: Putting it all together

    • A short history of the evolution of the catalogue record


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RDA vocabularies and concepts

Part 1:

Introduction to RDA


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RDA

Resource Description and Access

A new standard for creating bibliographic metadata

Based on the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules

In development since 1841 (Panizzi’s rules for the British Museum)

And FRBR and other more modern stuff

Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

Developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA)

Published 1998


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User-centred features of RDA (1)

  • Improves the FRBRizability of catalogues

  • Covers all types of user

    • Those who need to find, identify, select, obtain and use information, and manage and organize information bibliographically

  • Covers all media

    • Print-based, digital; textual, visual, etc.

      • Equal, even treatment gives more control to the user in finding and choosing the most appropriate resources


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FRBRisation

Work

Symphony no.1

Is realised through

Expression 1

Expression 2

LSO performance

Is embodied in

Manifestation 1.1

Manifestation 2.1

Manifestation 2.2

DVD-A

Is exemplified by

Item 1.1.1

Item 2.1.1

Item 2.2.1

Item 2.2.2

Copy on shelf


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User-centred features of RDA (2)

  • Clearly distinguishes content from carrier

    • E.g. Moving pictures on DVD; text on CD-ROM

    • Helpful for users with special needs

      • E.g. restrict search to non-visual resources

  • Multinational

    • Anglo-centricity (and cataloguer-eccentricity) removed

      • Abbreviations and acronyms avoided

      • Latinisms removed

        • Farewell s.n., s.l., et al.

      • [Still arguing about square brackets!]


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User-centred features of RDA (3)

  • Independent of technical metadata formats

    • Can be used with MARC, DC (Dublin Core)

      • And a whole bunch of other acronyms

    • Gives user familiar metadata regardless of what system is used

  • Designed for the digital environment

    • RDA will be published as an online product

      • So could be incorporated in user help facilities

        • E.g. How a “preferred title for the work” (uniform title) is derived


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Cataloguer-centred features of RDA (1)

  • Online product designed to interface and integrate with cataloguing modules

    • Work-flow integration will give step-by-step and contextual access to content rules

    • Possibility of adding local examples

    • Possibility of “myRDA”, removing unwanted rules and unused options

    • LMS vendors being kept informed

    • Avoidance of repetitive strain injury

      • Looking for that rule on corporate body main entry in AARC2


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Cataloguer-centred features of RDA (2)

  • More emphasis on cataloguer’s judgment

    • Guidelines rather than “rules”

  • Rules grouped by bibliographic element rather than format

  • Bibliographic elements related to FRBR entities (related to user tasks)

    • Why am I recording this information?

  • Authority control included

  • Generally compatible with AACR


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RDA and ONIX

  • ONIX (Online Information Exchange )

    • Publishing industry metadata standard

  • 2 day workshop, March 2006, British Library, London

    • RDA Editor, ONIX reps, facilitator

    • Followed up via email and tele-con

  • RDA/ONIX framework for resource categorization, August 2006

    • Distinguishes content from carrier (at last!)

  • Intention to extend framework

    • Status: Resources permitting – now permitted!


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RDA and DCMI

  • DCMI (Dublin Core Metadata Initiative)

  • 2 day meeting, April/May 2007, British Library, London

    • RDA Editor, reps for RDA, DC and related Semantic Web communities

    • Established the DCMI RDA Task Group

    • Operates via wiki, email, tele-con, meetings at DC annual conferences

    • Charter: To define components of the draft standard "RDA - Resource Description and Access" as an RDF vocabulary for use in developing a Dublin Core application profile.

      • Status: Ongoing, but nearly complete


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RDA and FRBR

  • FRBR Review Group, August 2007, WLIC (IFLA), Durban, South Africa

  • New project: To define appropriate namespaces for FRBR (entity-relationship) in RDF and other appropriate syntaxes

    • Status: Report and recommendations discussed at WLIC, Québec City, Canada

    • Delayed by IFLA website re-organisation

  • FRBR recently extended to Object-oriented FRBR (FRBRoo)

    • Based on CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM)


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RDA and FRAD

  • Functional Requirements for Authority Data

  • Published in May 2009

  • Likely to be included in the FRBR namespace project

  • RDA designed to be FRAD-ready

    • Generalities already incorporated, with place-holders, etc.

    • FRAD “Family” entity used in RDA

      • FRBR only defines person and corporate body entities


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RDA/ONIX framework

  • An ontology developed by RDA and the publishing community to improve metadata interoperability

  • Set of low-level attributes for describing the content and carrier of a bibliographic resource

  • Controlled vocabularies for some attributes

  • Attributes combined to form high-level content and carrier types for RDA


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RDA/ONIX framework example

  • RDA content type “spoken word”

    • High-level label for a framework base content category

  • Category attributes

    • Character: Language

    • SensoryMode: Hearing

    • ImageDimensionality: not applicable

    • ImageMovement: not applicable

  • User: what resources have content I can listen to?

    • = OPAC: what content types have SensoryMode: Hearing?

      • (“Spoken word”; “Performed music”; etc.)

    • then OPAC: list bib records with these content types!


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Vocabulary Mapping Framework (1)

  • JISC-funded project to extend the RDA/ONIX framework

    • Due for completion early November 2009

      • Lead by publishing community

      • GD is consultant

  • Will develop an ontology/categorisation of relationships between/among bibliographic entities and agent entities (parties)

    • E.g. Manifestion is-published-by Publisher; Work is-created-by Author; Work is-derived-from Work

    • E.g. “Creator” > “Author”, “Collector”, “Illustrator”; “Author” = “Writer”; etc.


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Vocabulary Mapping Framework (2)

  • Relationship terms from several standards will be mapped to the ontology

    • CIDOC-CRM, RDA, FRBR, FRAD, MARC21, etc.

  • Mappings then provide a hub-and-spoke mapping between any pair of standards

    • Efficient, as direct pair mappings not required

    • Will improve metadata interoperability in large-scale, heterogeneous resource discovery services

  • Ontology, terms, mappings compatible with Semantic Web (namespaces, etc.)


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RDA vocabularies and concepts

Part 2:

Introduction to the Semantic Web


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A problem

  • Humans are very good at processing information

    • Creation, analysis, synthesis, communication

      • Some say this is what defines us

  • We have invented machines to process data

    • Faster, globally, non-stop

  • The result is the information eruption

    • The Web: a continual explosion

  • Information professionals cannot keep up

  • We need our machines to process metadata


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Semantic Web

  • “… an evolving extension of the [WWW] in which the semantics of information and services on the web is defined, making it possible for the web to understand and satisfy the requests of people and machines to use the web content.”

    • Wikipedia, English, 10.08 15 Jul 2009

  • The basic building block is Resource Description Framework (RDF)


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Resource Description Framework (RDF)

  • Simple metadata statements in the form of subject-predicate-object expressions, called triples

    • E.g. “This presentation” – “has creator” – “Gordon Dunsire”

  • “presentation” and “creator” are metadata structure terms

    • Classes and properties

  • “this ...” and “Gordon Dunsire” are metadata content terms

    • Instances or values


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Semantic Web applications

  • RDF Schema (RDFS)

    • Expresses the structure of metadata classes and properties

  • Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS)

    • Expresses the basic structure and content of concept schemes such as thesauri and other types of controlled vocabularies

  • Web Ontology Language (OWL)

    • Explicitly represents the meaning of terms in vocabularies and the relationships between them (scope, etc.)


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Machine-processing

  • RDF is about making machine-processable statements, requiring

    • A machine-processable language for representing RDF statements

      • Extensible Markup Language (XML) 

    • A system of machine-processable identifiers for resources (subjects, predicates, objects)

      • Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) 

    • For full machine-processing, an RDF statement is a set of three URIs


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Identifiers

  • Things requiring identification (a URI):

    • Subject “This presentation”

      • e.g. its electronic location (URL): http://cdlr.strath.ac.uk/pubs/dunsireg/NLSRDA.pps

    • Predicate “has creator”

      • e.g. http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator

    • Object “Gordon Dunsire”

      • e.g. URI of entry in Library of Congress Name Authority File: http://errol.oclc.org/laf/nb2001-72552.html

  • Declaring vocabularies/values as “namespaces” in Semantic Web applications provides URIs


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RDA RDF vocabularies

  • Being added to the National Science Digital Library metadata registry

    • Stored in a database

    • Output as RDF(S)/SKOS

    • Automatic creation of a URI for each entry

  • Base domain: http://RDVocab.info

    • First part of every RDA vocabulary URI

    • Identifies the “namespace” or collection/set of terms


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RDA value in SKOS (part 1)

<?xml version="1.0" encoding = "UTF-8"?>

<rdf:RDFxmlns="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#" xmlns:skos="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:reg="http://metadataregistry.org/uri/schema/registry/">

:<!-- NOTICE: This is a single-concept fragment -->

:<!-- Scheme: RDA Content Type -->

:<skos:ConceptSchemerdf:about="http://RDVocab.info/termList/RDAContentType">

::<dc:title>RDA Content Type</dc:title>

:</skos:ConceptScheme>

XML namespaces

SKOS

NSDL Registry

Vocabulary URI


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RDA value in SKOS (part 2)

Term URI

:<!-- Concept: spoken word -->

:<skos:Conceptrdf:about="http://RDVocab.info/termList/RDAContentType/1013" xml:lang="en">

::<skos:inSchemerdf:resource="http://RDVocab.info/termList/RDAContentType"/>

::<reg:statusrdf:resource="http://metadataregistry.org/uri/RegStatus/1002"/>

::<skos:prefLabelxml:lang="en">spoken word</skos:prefLabel>

::<skos:definitionxml:lang="en">Content expressed through language in an audible form.</skos:definition>

::<skos:scopeNotexml:lang="en">Includes recorded readings, recitations, speeches, interviews, oral histories, etc., computer-generated speech, etc.</skos:scopeNote>

::<skos:prefLabelxml:lang="de">gesprocheneWorte</skos:prefLabel>

<skos:scopeNotexml:lang="de">UmfasstaufgezeichneteLesungen, Rezitationen, Reden, Interviews, mündlicheÜberlieferungenusw. und maschinellerzeugteSprache.</skos:scopeNote>

::<skos:definitionxml:lang="de">Inhalt, derdurchSprache in einerhörbaren Form ausgedrücktwird.</skos:definition>

:</skos:Concept>

Term

Definition

Registry status term URI

Term (German)


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RDA value in SKOS (part 3)

:<!-- Status properties used in this document -->

:<skos:Conceptrdf:about="http://metadataregistry.org/uri/RegStatus/1002">

::<skos:prefLabelxml:lang="en">New-Proposed</skos:prefLabel>

:</skos:Concept>

</rdf:RDF

Registry status term URI

Registry status term


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RDA content type “spoken word”

The term “spoken word” can be referenced as the value of the field “content type” in any metadata record using RDF/XML (Semantic Web):

xmlns:rdvct = http://RDVocab.info/termList/RDAContentype#

<… rdvct:1013 …>

The field/attribute/element “content type” can be referenced in a similar way to the RDF Schema for RDA elements being developed by DCMI/RDA


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More library namespaces

  • IFLA bibliographic control standards

    • Discussions during WLIC 2008, Québec City

  • RDF Schema for entities and relationships from Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR)

    • E.g. “Work”, “has Expression” / ”is Expression of”

  • Others are likely to follow:

    • Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD)

    • International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD)

      • ISBD/XML Task Group

    • Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data (FRSAD)

    • UNIMARC

  • Library of Congress taking a similar approach with MARC21


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RDA vocabularies and concepts

Part 3:

Putting it all together


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A short history

of the evolution

of the library catalogue record


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In the beginning ...

Lee, T. B.

Cataloguing has a future. - Audio disc

(Spoken word). - Donated by the author.

1. Metadata

... the catalogue card


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From flat-file record ...

Bibliographic description

Name authority

Author:

Lee, T. B.

Name:

Biography:

Title:

Cataloguing has a future

...

Content type:

Spoken word

Carrier type:

Audio disc

Subject authority

Subject:

Metadata

Term:

Provenance:

Donated by the author

Definition:

...

... to relational record


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From flat-file description ...

Bibliographic description

Name authority

Author:

Name:

Lee, T. B.

Biography:

Title:

Cataloguing has a future

...

Work

Content type:

Spoken word

Author:

Carrier type:

Audio disc

Subject authority

Subject:

Subject:

Term:

Metadata

Expression

Provenance:

Donated by the author

Definition:

Content type:

Spoken word

...

Manifestation

Item

... to FRBR record


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From FRBR record ...

Work

Name authority

Author:

Name:

Lee, T. B.

Subject:

Subject authority

Expression

Term:

Metadata

Content type:

Spoken word

Manifestation

RDA content type

Title:

Cataloguing has a future

Term:

Carrier type:

Audio disc

RDA carrier type

Item

Term:

Provenance:

Donor:

Donated by the author

Amazon/Publisher

Title:

... to extinction!


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Where is the record?

  • Implicit, not explicit

    • Everywhere and nowhere

  • A semantic Web will allow machines to create the record just-in-time

    • We will not have to maintain records just-in-case

  • The user will have control over the presentation

    • I want to see an archive or library or museum or Amazon or Google or Flickr or ? display

  • And by avoiding duplication, we can all get on with describing new stuff ...


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The hyperdimensional (Tardis) card

W3C Library

Audio shop

Lee, T. B.

Cataloguing has a future. - Audio disc

(Spoken word). - Donated by the author.

1. Metadata

Lee Museum

Spoken word archive

“TARDIS four port USB hub, for office-bound Time Lords:

Open a time vortex on your desk” – Pocket-lint


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Linking communities

FRBR

FRBRoo

ONIX

RDA

CRM

FRBRoo

FRBR

RDA

FRBR

ISBD

DC

RDA

MARC

RDA


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Everything is connected

CRM

FRBRoo

FRBR

ISBD

ONIX

RDA

MARC

DC

… at the community (human) and technical (Semantic Web) levels


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Thank you

  • Another identifier


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