Overview of maps detectors
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Overview of MAPS detectors. Fergus Wilson Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (with lots of input and slides from Renato Turchetta and the RAL Sensor D esign G roup) Vertex 2015, Macha Lake, Czech Republic, 15-19 Sep 2014. Outline. Outline Introduction to Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

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Overview of maps detectors

Overview of MAPS detectors

Fergus Wilson

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

(with lots of input and slides from Renato Turchetta and the RAL Sensor Design Group)

Vertex 2015, Macha Lake, Czech Republic, 15-19 Sep 2014


Outline

Outline

  • Outline

    • Introduction to Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

    • Some non-HEP and commercial uses (and why they matter).

    • On-going and future HEP MAPS projects and detectors.

  • Overlapping presentations:

    • PXL at STAR: M. Szelenicak/M. Simko(poster)

    • ALICE ITS upgrade: F. Reidt

    • ATLAS pixels: J. Grosse-Knetter

    • HV-CMOS: D. Muenstermann

  • Workshop on CMOS Active Pixel Sensors for Particle Tracking (CPIX14), Bonn, 15-19 Sept

    • 3 days, 37 talks

    • I’ll do it all in 25 minutes…

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Cmos monolithic active pixel sensors

CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

  • First invented in the 60’s but CCDs much better then.

  • Re-invented at the beginning of 90s: JPL, IMEC,

    • Standard CMOS technology.

    • All-in-one detector-connection-readout – Monolithic.

    • Small size / greater integration.

    • Low power consumption.

    • Low noise.

    • Radiation resistance.

    • System-level cost.

    • Increased functionality.

    • Increased speed.

    • Increased readout speed (parallel processing).

    • Region of interest readout.

    • Etc…

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Charged particle detection

Charged Particle Detection

Deep p-well: enhances charge collection, allows enhanced pixel structures

Thin epitaxial layer: shorter collection times, less multiple scattering, less chance of charge capture

High-resistivity epitaxial layer: improved signal to noise.

Guard rings: improve resistance to radiation damage.

High-resistivity epitaxial layer + low voltage bias (HR-CMOS): charge collection by drift, faster, radiation hardness

High voltage bias (HV-CMOS): charge collection by drift, faster, radiation hardness

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Active pixels and in pixel electronics

Active pixels and In-Pixel electronics

Correlated Double Sampling (CDS), reduced noise

Passive

Active

No need to stop at 4T…

Move as much processing as you can on to the pixel

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Fabrication and stitching

Fabrication and Stitching.

56 mm

56 mm

D

B

B

D

C

A

A

C

Reticle size is just over 2cm x 2cm  ‘stitching’

Reticle is subdivided in blocks

C

A

A

C

D

B

B

D

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Beyond particle physics

Beyond Particle Physics

  • MAPS have penetrated other science areas more quickly than particle physics.

  • Commercially attractive (high yields, low cost).

  • Many overlaps with particle physics requirements:

    • Radiation tolerance - Cost

    • Small and large pixels - Reliability

    • High Speed

    • Quantum efficiency

    • High dynamic range

    • Low power

  • But particle physics detectors want them all !

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)

Slide taken from D. Contarato, LBNL, 2012

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Detection of electrons inCMOS

Single electron detection

Good event

Energy contained in one pixel

Bad event

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Achilles a 16mpixel sensor for tem

  • 61x63 mm2 silicon area (4 dies per wafer)

  • 0.35mm CMOS

  • 16 million pixels, 4Kx4K array

  • 14 µm pixels

  • 32 analogue outputs, 10 Mpixs/sec

  • 40 fps

  • Pixel binning 1X, 2X and 4X

  • ROI readout

  • 83 e- rms noise

  • Full well 120ke-

  • Radiation hardness of >500 million of primary electrons/pixel (>20 Mrad)

  • 20% QE for visible light

www.fei.com

Novo virus

Achilles: a 16Mpixel sensor for TEM

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Wafer-scale sensor for X-ray medical imaging

  • Motivations

    • Extra-oral dental, mammography, chest imaging, security,…

  • Requirements

    • High yield (commodity item).

    • Radiation hard:

    • Very large sensors:

      • Wafer scale sensor.

      • One sensor per 8”/20cm wafer

      • 3-side buttable – 2 x N tilling

  • Lassena characteristics

    • 6.7 Mpixels; 30 fps; 50µm pixels; Low noise: 68 e-

    • Large area: 3-side buttable to cover any length with 28 cm width

    • Binning x2, x4; Region-of Interest readout

    • High dynamic range, multiple programmable integration times

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Photon Science - Percival

Pixelated Energy Resolving CMOS Imager,Versatile and Large

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Percival soft x-ray imager

  • Design goals

    • Back-thinned

    • 4k x 4k pixels

    • 120 fps (digital CDS)

    • High dynamic range (4 gains per pixel)

      • 2*105 photons @ 250 eV

      • ~120dB or full well >10 Me-

    • 12+1bit ADC

    • 15 bits per pixel (2 gain bits + 13 bits)

    • Digital I/O (LVDS)

    • 60 Gbit/sec continuous data rate

Multi-level row control

Pixel array4kx4k

@25µm pitch)

SPI and bias generator

28,000 ADCs

(7 ADCs per column)

210x160 25µm pixel prototype under front illumination at DESY

Serialiser and LVDS I/O

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectroscopy

  • Separate chemical species by (mass/charge) ratio and identify where they are in the specimen

  • Requirements:

    • Timing information

    • Spatial Information

Courtesy of A. Nomerotski et al., Oxford University

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

PImMS family

PImMS camera

PImMS2: 324 x 324 pixels

PImMS1: 72 x 72 pixels

  • 70 um x 70 um pixels

  • 25 ns time resolution (12.5ns has been demonstrated).

  • Continuous 40 Mfps for 100µs.

  • 4 events can be stored in each pixel.

  • 12-bit time-code resolution.

  • Each pixel can be trimmed.

  • Analogue readout of intensity information.

  • Equivalent pixel rate for a standard full frame camera 2 x 1012 pixels/sec

Looks a bit like Linear Collider specs…

)/

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Ultra high speed ucmos kirana

Ultra-high speed uCMOS - Kirana

Looks a bit like Linear Collider specs…

High resolution: 924 x 768 30µm pixels

Die size 32.5 x 25.5 mm.

In-pixel storage and Correlated Double Sampling (CDS).

Burst mode: 180 frames at 5 MHz.

Continuous mode: 1180 fps.

Noise: <10e-; full well: 11,700 e-

Commercialised (Specialised Imaging)

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Performance summary

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Maps hep progression

MAPS HEP progression

Linear Collider

(20??)

STAR PXL

(now)

mu3e

(2015)

ALICE ITS

(2018)

ATLAS Tracker Phase II?

(2023)

0.16 m2

1.9 m2

10 m 2

~100? m2

Vertexer ?

Tracker ?

Digital Calorimetry ?

Where is MAPS being proposed?

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Star pxl at rhic

STAR PXL at RHIC

  • Design: LBNL, UT at Austin; PICSEL group, IPHC, Strasbourg

  • See M Szelezniaktalk and M Simko poster.

PRELIMINARY

PRELIMINARY

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


3e at psi

μ3e at PSI

  • µ→eee lepton flavour violation

  • 109muon decays/s. Low Pt tracks, resolution dominated by multiple scattering.

  • 4 layers 80x80m2 pixel size, 275 MP

  • Thin <50µm.180nm HV-CMOS.

  • Fast charge collection by drift.

  • Power consumption 7.5 µW/pixel

3mm

  • MuPixdesign: Heidelberg, PSI, Zürich, Genf

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


3e at psi recent desy test beam results

μ3e at PSI: recent DESY test-beam results

  • Recent DESY test beam results (MuPix4):

    • Timing resolution 18ns

    • Track residuals: 28µm

    • Hit efficiency > 99%

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Alice inner tracker system upgrade

ALICE Inner Tracker System Upgrade

  • Many competing/collaborating architectures:

  • MISTRAL/ASTRAL (IPHC), Cherwell (RAL),

  • ALPIDE (CCNU/CERN/INFN/Yonsei)

Also being considered for forward tracker

  • See Felix Reidt talk

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Atlas phase ii tracker

ATLAS Phase II Tracker

A hybrid MAPS ?

  • See Daniel Muenstermann talk

  • Challenges

    • 200 bunches in pile-up, increased particle densities. (1-2 GHz/cm2)

    • Increased radiation damage (2 x 1016neq/cm2)

    • Increased power requirements.

    • Reduced material required.

  • Pixel+microstrip still the baseline but have ~2-3 years to show that CMOS could be viable technology.

    • Strips -> elongated pixels.

    • MAPS with HV-CMOS or HR-CMOS for radiation hardness and speed.

    • MAPS not the only candidate: thin planar silicon, diamond, 3-D detectors…

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Vertexing and tracking for linear collider

Vertexing and Tracking for Linear Collider

  • Example of MAPS performance

  • Cherwell sensor.

  • 99.7% hit efficiency.

  • 3.7μm hit resolution.

  • Power pulsing.

See S.RedfordCLIC, A.Besson ILC

  • Pixels are a baseline technology for CLIC/LC vertexing; could become baseline technology for tracking.

  • CLIC detector development has been progressing; LC development has been on hold for ~6 years.

  • But CLIC and ILC have very different bunch structures.

    • ILC: 5Hz, 2625 bunches in 1ms followed by 199ms gap.

    • CLIC: 50Hz, 312 bunches, 0.5ns between bunches, 20ms gap.

  • MAPS (Mimosa, Chronopixels, LBL, INFN ...), clixpix, CCD, ISIS, DEPFET, SoI, 3D,…

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Digital calorimetry for linear collider

Digital Calorimetry for Linear Collider

  • TPAC sensor:

  • 168 x 168 pixels

  • 50x50μm

  • Digital readout

  • Sample every 400ns

An alternative to silicon wafers or scintillators.

Results from TPAC chip in CERN test beam.

Shows correct behaviour as function of energy.

Demonstrates DECAL/MAPS concept validity

T.Price, Birmingham, 2013

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Conclusions.

  • MAPS are already commercially available.

  • MAPS have already penetrated non-HEP areas

    • Medical, photon science, space, X-rays, neutron, lasers,…

  • In HEP

    • Capabilities proven at STAR.

    • Soon to be used in μ3e vertex detector.

    • Expect to see used in a tracker in ALICE ITS, Forward Tracker.

    • Already seeing radiation hardness and speeds (not to mention power consumption, material thickness, cost, …) that are suitable for LHC phase II upgrades

    • MAPS an excellent candidate for LC/ILC vertex detectors and trackers.

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Backup

Backup

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Kirana pixel. 1

  • Photodiode

  • Memory bank

  • A vertical entry (VEN) bank with 10 cells

  • Ten rows of lateral (LAT) banks, each with 16 cells

  • A vertical exit (VEX) bank with 10 cells

  • Total of 180 memory cells

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Kirana pixel. 2

  • Highly scalable architecture:

  • Number of memory cells

  • Number of pixels

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Burst mode

  • Vertical transfers x10 @ full speed

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Burst mode

  • Charge moved into lateral memory bank

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Burst mode

  • Ten more vertical transfers

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Burst mode

  • Lateral transfer x1 @ full speed / 10

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Burst mode

  • … and so on, seamless

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Burst mode

  • … and so on, seamless

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Burst mode

  • … and so on, seamless

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Burst mode

  • … and so on, seamless

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Burst mode

  • … and so on, seamless

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Burst mode

  • … and so on, seamless

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Burst mode

  • … and so on, seamless

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Burst mode

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Burst mode

  • Charge in the vertical exit registers is dumped in the reset node …

  • … until receipt of the trigger. The status of the memory bank is then frozen and the sensor read out.

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Continuous mode

  • Memory bank acting simply like a delay line

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Continuous mode

  • Memory bank acting simply like a delay line

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Continuous mode

  • Memory bank acting simply like a delay line

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Continuous mode

  • Memory bank acting simply like a delay line

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Continuous mode

  • Memory bank acting simply like a delay line

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Continuous mode

  • Memory bank acting simply like a delay line

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Continuous mode

  • Memory bank acting simply like a delay line

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Continuous mode

  • Memory bank acting simply like a delay line

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Continuous mode

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Continuous mode

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Continuous mode

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Continuous mode

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Continuous mode

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Continuous mode

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


Overview of maps detectors

Continuous mode

Fergus Wilson, RAL/STFC


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