Search for hidden sector photons in a microwave cavity experiment
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Search for hidden sector photons in a microwave cavity experiment. John Hartnett, Mike Tobar , Rhys Povey, Joerg Jaeckel. DURHAM UNIVERSITY. The 5th Patras Workshop on Axions, WIMPs and WISPs. Frequency Standards and Metrology

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Search for hidden sector photons in a microwave cavity experiment

John Hartnett, Mike Tobar, Rhys Povey, Joerg Jaeckel

DURHAM UNIVERSITY

The 5th Patras Workshop on Axions, WIMPs and WISPs


Frequency Standards and Metrology

Precision Microwave Oscillators and Interferometers: From Testing Fundamental Physics to Commercial and Space Applications

FSM

Michael E. Tobar

ARC Australian Laureate Fellow

School of Physics

University of Western Australia, Perth

Frequency Standards and Metrology Research Group


High-Precision Oscillators,

Clocks and Interferometers

Generating and measuring frequency, time and phase at the highest precision

Space


Research

Testing fundamental physics

  • Lorentz Invariance

  • Rotating cryogenic oscillator experiment

  • Odd parity magnetic MZ Interferometer experiment

  • Generation and detection of the Paraphoton

    Commercial Applications

  • Microwave Interferometer as a noise detector

  • Sapphire Oscillators (room temperature and cryogenic)

    Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) Mission

  • Australian User Group

  • Long term operation of high precision clocks

    Astronomy

  • Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators better than H-masers

  • With MIT, image black hole at the centre of the Galaxy

  • Within Australia -> SKA and VLBI timing


Schematic of cavity experiment


Microwave cavity modes

  • Whispering Gallery modes WGE(H)mnp

    • Vertically stacked

  • TM0np (n = 0,1; p = 0,1,2,3)

    • Vertically stacked

  • TE0np (n = 0,1; p = 0,1,2,3)

    • Vertically stacked


Whispering Gallery modes


Electric field strength

WGE16,0,0


HEMEX Whispering Gallery Mode Sapphire resonator

WGH16,0,0 at 11.200 GHz


Cavity mounted inside inner can


Sapphire in Cavity

80

8

sapphire

30

50

secondary coupling probe

51.00

11.83

19

silver plated copper cavity

copper clamp

10

primary

coupling probe

copper nut


Lower order modes

TE mode: Eθ field


Electric field strength

TE011

TM010


Coupling to paraphoton


Form Factor |G|

Paraphoton wavenumber

Cavity resonance frequency


Transistion Probability

coupling

|G|~ 1

Paraphoton mass

Resonance Q-factor


Probability of Detection

Assuming

Pem = 1 W, Pdet = 10-24 W, Q ~ 109,

χ ~ 3.2 × 10-11


Exclusion plot

For 6 pairs of Niobium cylinders (stacked axially) with 2 GHz < ω0/2π< 20 GHz and ω0 k  0

Microwave cavities

Q~1011, ….6 orders of magnitude better than Coulomb experiment


Overlap integral |G|

k0 =ω0/c (resonance)

kγ = paraphoton

kγ2 =ω2 – mγ2


Overlap integral |G|


Overlap integral |G|


Overlap integral |G|


Q-factor TE0np

  • Q =Rs/G

    G=Geometric factor & Rs = surface resistance

G [Ohms]

10 GHz mode

T ≤ 4 K Niobium Q~ 109

Freq [Hz]


SUMO cavity: TM010 mode


WG modes

  • In sapphire very high Q ~ 109 without Niobium

  • ? G for high m seems small, need to confirm, as numeric integral needs to be checked


Detection?

  • Assuming

    • detection bandwidth f = 1 Hz

    • receiver temperature T = 1 K (very good amp)

      thermal noise power kTf = -199 dBm


Challenges

  • Isolation will be the biggest problem

  • Microwave leakage

  • Unity coupling probes to cavities

  • No reflected power

  • Tuning High Q resonances exactly to the same frequency


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