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Search for hidden sector photons in a microwave cavity experiment. John Hartnett, Mike Tobar , Rhys Povey, Joerg Jaeckel. DURHAM UNIVERSITY. The 5th Patras Workshop on Axions, WIMPs and WISPs. Frequency Standards and Metrology

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search for hidden sector photons in a microwave cavity experiment

Search for hidden sector photons in a microwave cavity experiment

John Hartnett, Mike Tobar, Rhys Povey, Joerg Jaeckel

DURHAM UNIVERSITY

The 5th Patras Workshop on Axions, WIMPs and WISPs

slide2

Frequency Standards and Metrology

Precision Microwave Oscillators and Interferometers: From Testing Fundamental Physics to Commercial and Space Applications

FSM

Michael E. Tobar

ARC Australian Laureate Fellow

School of Physics

University of Western Australia, Perth

Frequency Standards and Metrology Research Group

slide3

High-Precision Oscillators,

Clocks and Interferometers

Generating and measuring frequency, time and phase at the highest precision

Space

slide4

Research

Testing fundamental physics

  • Lorentz Invariance
  • Rotating cryogenic oscillator experiment
  • Odd parity magnetic MZ Interferometer experiment
  • Generation and detection of the Paraphoton

Commercial Applications

  • Microwave Interferometer as a noise detector
  • Sapphire Oscillators (room temperature and cryogenic)

Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) Mission

  • Australian User Group
  • Long term operation of high precision clocks

Astronomy

  • Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators better than H-masers
  • With MIT, image black hole at the centre of the Galaxy
  • Within Australia -> SKA and VLBI timing
microwave cavity modes
Microwave cavity modes
  • Whispering Gallery modes WGE(H)mnp
    • Vertically stacked
  • TM0np (n = 0,1; p = 0,1,2,3)
    • Vertically stacked
  • TE0np (n = 0,1; p = 0,1,2,3)
    • Vertically stacked
sapphire in cavity
Sapphire in Cavity

80

8

sapphire

30

50

secondary coupling probe

51.00

11.83

19

silver plated copper cavity

copper clamp

10

primary

coupling probe

copper nut

lower order modes
Lower order modes

TE mode: Eθ field

form factor g
Form Factor |G|

Paraphoton wavenumber

Cavity resonance frequency

transistion probability
Transistion Probability

coupling

|G|~ 1

Paraphoton mass

Resonance Q-factor

slide22

Probability of Detection

Assuming

Pem = 1 W, Pdet = 10-24 W, Q ~ 109,

χ ~ 3.2 × 10-11

exclusion plot
Exclusion plot

For 6 pairs of Niobium cylinders (stacked axially) with 2 GHz < ω0/2π< 20 GHz and ω0 k  0

Microwave cavities

Q~1011, ….6 orders of magnitude better than Coulomb experiment

overlap integral g
Overlap integral |G|

k0 =ω0/c (resonance)

kγ = paraphoton

kγ2 =ω2 – mγ2

q factor te 0np
Q-factor TE0np
  • Q =Rs/G

G=Geometric factor & Rs = surface resistance

G [Ohms]

10 GHz mode

T ≤ 4 K Niobium Q~ 109

Freq [Hz]

wg modes
WG modes
  • In sapphire very high Q ~ 109 without Niobium
  • ? G for high m seems small, need to confirm, as numeric integral needs to be checked
detection
Detection?
  • Assuming
    • detection bandwidth f = 1 Hz
    • receiver temperature T = 1 K (very good amp)

thermal noise power kTf = -199 dBm

challenges
Challenges
  • Isolation will be the biggest problem
  • Microwave leakage
  • Unity coupling probes to cavities
  • No reflected power
  • Tuning High Q resonances exactly to the same frequency
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