Task achieving agents on the world wide web an introduction
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Task Achieving Agents on the World Wide Web An Introduction. Sharif Univ. of Tech. Computer Eng. Dep. Semantic Web Course Mohsen Lesani 13 Ord 1374. Motivation. World Wide Web, a place for Finding Things Data models and standards developed to date mostly relate to retrieve information

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Task Achieving Agents on the World Wide Web An Introduction

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Task Achieving Agents on the World Wide WebAn Introduction

Sharif Univ. of Tech.

Computer Eng. Dep.

Semantic Web Course

Mohsen Lesani

13 Ord 1374


  • World Wide Web, a place for

    • Finding Things

      • Data models and standards developed to date mostly relate to retrieve information

    • Doing Things

      • We need shared models and ontologies involved in doing and planning

Standards for Representing Activities

  • A common ontology and representation for activities, plans and processes

  • Two stands

    • Military Planning

      • Core Plan Representation (CPR)

      • Shared Plan and Activities Representation (SPAR)

    • Standards Community

      • Process Interchange Format (PIF)

      • Process Specification Language (PSL)

<I-N-OVA> and <I-N-CA>

  • <I-N-OVA> is an activity ontology similar to SPAR.

  • <I-N-CA> is the more general ontology for design and configuration.

<I-N-OVA> and <I-N-CA>

  • Planning is

    • The making of decisions (Issues) that

    • Select activities to perform (Nodes) that

    • Create, modify or use the plan products (Variables)

    • Regarding the time (Ordering)

    • Considering the authority, resources and other (Auxiliary) constraints

<I-N-OVA> and <I-N-CA>

  • <I-N-OVA> constraint model of activity

    • I: Issues (Implied) Constraints

    • N: Node Constraints

    • OVA: Detailed Constraints

      • O: Ordering Constraints

      • V: Variable Constraints

      • A: Auxiliary Constraints

        • Authority Constraints

        • Resource Constraints

  • <I-N-CA>

    • C: Critical constraints nearly do as OV

<I-N-OVA> and <I-N-CA>

  • The underlying thesis is

    • Representing the planning process as a partially ordered network of activities

    • Representing the activity as a set of constraints on the behaviors possible in the domain

    • Activity communication can take place through the interchange of such constraint information

<I-N-OVA> and <I-N-CA>

  • Uses are

    • Knowledge representation and acquisition

      • <I-N-OVA> and <I-N-CA> are used to represent

        • The plan artifacts especially when these are still in the process of being designed and synthesized and

        • The capabilities, collaborations and processes used to synthesize these artifacts

      • <I-N-OVA> and <I-N-CA> can be well represented in XML

    • Formal Analysis and System manipulation

      • To act as an otology underlying formal reasoning and automatic manipulation of plans and synthesized artifacts

    • User communication

Open Planning process Panels (OP3)

  • Real-world planning

    • A multiuser multiagent collaboration

    • To synthesis a solution to a requirement

    • Alternative courses of action are developed, evaluated and compared

    • By people with different roles collaboratively

    • By software pieces for planning, scheduling, simulation and evaluation

    • Acting in parallel, sharing resources and communicating results

Open Planning process Panels (OP3)

  • OP3 proposes using panels to

    • Coordinate the workflow between multiple agents and

    • Visualize the development and evaluation of multiple courses of actions (COA)

  • The panels are tailored to support user roles requirements and authorities.

Open Planning process Panels (OP3)

  • The purpose of OP3 is to

    • Coordinate the workflow between agents (humans and systems such as AI-Planners, Schedulers and plan evaluators) working in parallel on distinct parts of the plan synthesis

    • Display the planning process as a partially ordered network of actions (PERT chart) with some actions having expansions to another partially ordered networks which is encoded using an activity modeling language, such as <I-N-OVA>

    • Allow the development and evaluation of multiple courses of actions (COAs)

    • Display the status of the steps in the courses of actions

    • Allow the users to compare the products of the courses of actions

    • Allow the users to control the next steps on the workflow fringe

Open Planning process Panels (OP3)

  • Methodology for building OP3s

    • Consider and assign roles and authorities to agents (humans and systems) involved

    • Construct an activity model of the planning process showing the partially ordering and decompositions of the actions

    • Indicate which agents can carry out which actions

    • Construct specific OP3 interfaces for each of the human agents

Application 1: O-Plan on the web

  • Two human agents

    • Task Assigner (TA):

      • Sets the requirements for a particular course of action (i.e. top level tasks)

      • Selects the appropriate evaluation criteria for the resulting plans

    • Planner:

      • Uses O-Plan to generate a number of courses of action for a given set of top level requirements

      • Returning only the best courses of action to the TA

        The two panels were constructed using a CGI HTTP server in Common Lisp

  • One System

    • O-Plan: is an automated planning agent to:

      • To generate plans for the planner user

Application 2:Air Campaign Planning Process Panel (ACP3)

  • Brings together 11 separately developed software systems that

    • Work together to create and evaluate multiple courses of action in the air campaign domain

    • Communicate with each other by exchanging KQML messages

  • Written entirely in Java

  • From U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory Planning Initiative (ARPI)

Application 3:Wireless O-Plan (WOPlan)

  • Motivation:

    • Available web-based demonstrations of O-Plan propose problem domains involving various military disaster relief and evacuation operations

    • The aim of O-Plan was to create a mobile interface for the O-Plan system

  • A mobile telephone or personal digital assistant (PDA) can retrieve a plan containing a checklist to follow from O-Plan in situations in which the user has insufficient experience.

Application 3:Wireless O-Plan (WOPlan)

  • Architecture of WOPlan:

    • Developed as a web application

      • WAP Client

        • May be any device that has a browser that conforms to the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)

        • Nokia WAP Toolkit Wireless markup language (WML) browser emulator was used in the development and testing instead of a physical WAP device

      • WOPlan Servlet

        • A Java Servlet hosted within the Jakarta Tomcat Web Server

        • Accepts requests from multiple clients simultaneously

        • Sends messages to and receives messages from O-Plan Server through Standard O-Plan Task Assignment Interface

        • Dynamically creates WML pages and sends them to the WAP client

      • O-Plan Server

        • Sits in the bottom tier of architecture and responds to requests from the WOPlan Server

Application 3:Wireless O-Plan (WOPlan)

  • Human-Computer interaction issues

    • Users expect their interaction with mobile devices to be relief whereas users sitting at a workstation are prepared for a more prolonged session

    • Browsing and data entry are slow and cumbersome and should be kept to a minimum

  • A mobile device needs only to be slightly poorly designed to be rendered useless.

  • The design of mobile interface for O-Plan is made more difficult by the limited screen size.

Application 3:Wireless O-Plan (WOPlan)

  • Investigation of mobile devices specific properties

    • Voice Technology

      • The use of VoiceXML to make internet content and information accessible via voice and phone

    • Positioning

      • The provision of location services (LCS) as a standard for mobile devices is still currently at the design stage

The end of the story

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