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The World Wide Web. History Overview of Structure Overview of Search Engines. History of the Web. 1945 – Vannevar Bush (“As We May Think,” Atlantic Monthly ) – the human mind operates by association. History of the Web.

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The World Wide Web

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The World Wide Web

History

Overview of Structure

Overview of Search Engines


History of the Web

  • 1945 – Vannevar Bush (“As We May Think,” Atlantic Monthly) – the human mind operates by association


History of the Web

  • 1965 – Ted Nelson proposed “Literary Machines,” computers that would allow writing and publishing of nonsequential text – hypertext – and the Xanadu Project – all the world’s information hyperlinked together


History of the Web

Let me introduce the word "hypertext"***~ to mean a body of written or pictorial material interconnected in such a complex way that it could not conveniently be presented or represented on paper. It may contain summaries, or maps of its contents and their interrelations; it may contain annotations, additions and footnotes from scholars who have examined it. Let me suggest that such an object and system, properly designed and administered, could have great potential for education, increasing the student's range of choices, his sense of freedom, his motivation, and his intellectual grasp***~*. Such a system could grow indefinitely, gradually including more and more of the world's written knowledge. T. Nelson, 1965.


History of the Web

  • Late 1960s – Doug Engelbart at SRI developed the oNLine System (NLS), software for the about-to-be ARPANET that allowed hyperlinking between files on different computers


History of the Web

  • Late 1960s – Doug Engelbart at SRI developed the oNLine System (NLS), software for the about-to-be ARPANET that allowed hyperlinking between files on different computers

  • 1968 – Engelbart gives “the mother of all demos” in SF: word processing, windows, hypertext, the mouse, and video conferencing


History of the Web

  • 1970 – no Web…


History of the Web

  • 1970 – no Web…

  • 1980 – still no Web…although Tim Berners-Lee wrote a program, “ENQUIRE,” that hyperlinked between local computers


History of the Web

  • 1970 – no Web…

  • 1980 – still no Web…although Tim Berners-Lee wrote a program, “ENQUIRE,” that hyperlinked between local computers

  • 1984 – still no Web, but the mouse becomes mainstream in the Apple Macintosh, 15 years after Engelbart invents it!


History of the Web

  • 1989-90 – Berners-Lee proposes that CERN create a “global hypertext system”


History of the Web

  • 1989-90 – Berners-Lee proposes that CERN create a “global hypertext system”

  • 1990 – TBL writes first browser program, names it “World Wide Web”…


History of the Web

  • 1989-90 – Berners-Lee proposes that CERN create a “global hypertext system”

  • 1990 – TBL writes first browser program, names it “World Wide Web”…

  • 12/90 – first access to Internet news articles

  • 8/91 – software released on the Internet


History of the Web

  • 9/93 – “Mosaic” browser for PC; Web traffic measures 1% of traffic on NSFnet backbone

  • 1/94 – O’Reilly Associates releases “Internet in a Box” software for home users

  • 3/94 – Marc Andreessen et al. form precursor of Netscape

  • 10/94 – first banner ads on hotwired.com for Zima and AT&T

  • 1995 – AOL, Compuserve provide Web access


Web Sites

Figure: WWW Growth


Web Structure

  • There is no right or wrong way to display the “structure” of the Web.


Web Structure

  • There is no right or wrong way to display the “structure” of the Web.

  • But there is one fundamental difference between Internet and Web structures…


Web Structure

  • There is no right or wrong way to display the “structure” of the Web.

  • But there is one fundamental difference between Internet and Web structures:

    • Internet structure is controlled by wiring…


Web Structure

  • There is no right or wrong way to display the “structure” of the Web.

  • But there is one fundamental difference between Internet and Web structures…

    • Internet structure is controlled by wiring,

      which leads to the possibility of finding this:

      http://www.shibumi.org/EotI


Web Structure

  • There is no right or wrong way to display the “structure” of the Web.

  • But there is one fundamental difference between Internet and Web structures…

    • Internet structure is controlled by wiring


Web Structure

  • There is no right or wrong way to display the “structure” of the Web.

  • But there is one fundamental difference between Internet and Web structures…

    • Internet structure is controlled by wiring

    • Web structure is controlled by hyperlinks…


Web Structure

  • There is no right or wrong way to display the “structure” of the Web.

  • But there is one fundamental difference between Internet and Web structures…

    • Internet structure is controlled by wiring

    • Web structure is controlled by hyperlinks

      But why should we care what either looks like?…


Web Structure

  • 1999 – “Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon” Theory: “Any two randomly chosen Web pages are, on average, 19 clicks away from each other.” This was taken as a measure of the “diameter” of the Web…


Web Structure

  • 1999 – “Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon” Theory: “Any two randomly chosen Web pages are, on average, 19 clicks away from each other.” This was taken as a measure of the “diameter” of the Web…

  • 2005 – df for the WWW is 4.1, Chaoming Sung, Hernán Makse,Shlomo Havlin


Web Structure

  • 1999 – “Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon” Theory: “Any two randomly chosen Web pages are, on average, 19 clicks away from each other.” This was taken as a measure of the “diameter” of the Web…

  • 2005 – df for the WWW is 4.1, Chaoming Sung, Hernán Makse,Shlomo Havlin

  • Andthenthere’sTheInvisibleWeb…


Search Engines

Again, there is no right or wrong way to search…(better, maybe!)


Search Engines

Again, there is no right or wrong way to search… (better, maybe!)

Or to present the resulting information.


Search Engines

Again, there is no right or wrong way…

But there are three organizational categories…


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