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Non-classroom Settings at the High School. Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention & Supports Universal Strategies: Nonclassroom Settings. Identify Setting Specific Behaviors Develop Teaching Strategies

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Non-classroom Settings at the High School

Tim Lewis, Ph.D.

University of Missouri

OSEP Center on Positive

Behavioral Intervention & Supports

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Universal Strategies: Nonclassroom Settings

  • Identify Setting Specific Behaviors

  • Develop Teaching Strategies

  • Develop Practice Opportunities and Consequences

  • Assess the Physical Characteristics

  • Establish Setting Routines

  • Identify Needed Support Structures

  • Data collection strategies

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Identify Setting Specific Behaviors

  • Identify problems

    • Student to adult

    • Student to student

    • Student to system

  • Generate a list of replacement behaviors {What do you want students to do?}

  • Frame in positive observable terms

  • Use students’ input

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RAH – at Adams City High School(Respect – Achievement – Honor)

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Develop Teaching Strategies

  • Develop social skill lessons

  • Provide multiple opportunities to practice

  • Develop pre-correction strategies

  • Involve ALL staff (and students) in instruction

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Develop Practice Opportunities & Consequences

  • Specific verbal feedback using language of social skills

  • Reinforcers / Incentives

  • Teach in settings / Practice in settings

  • Error corrections

  • Uniform standards and outcomes for serious rule offenses

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Assess the Physical Characteristics

  • Determine which environmental factors contribute to the problem

  • Determine which environmental factors can be modified

  • If factors cannot be modified, what supervision is required?

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Establish Setting Routines

  • Everyone knows, and follows, the rules

  • Routines established that allow students to demonstrate appropriate skills & minimize problem behavior

  • Adult monitoring

  • Feedback

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Identify Needed Support Structures

Such as….

  • Reschedule transitions or activities to allow adequate adult supervision

  • Insure all supervisory staff are fluent with nonclassroom procedures

  • Insure all staff participating

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  • Conduct social skill lessons

  • Provide pre-corrects / prompts

  • Implement support structures (e.g., supervision, altered schedules)

  • Provide feedback

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Monitor / Evaluate

  • Anecdotal data

  • Behavior counts

  • Behavioral Infractions from targeted setting

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Bullying Defined

“A student is being bullied or victimized when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other students” (Elliott, 2002)

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Types of Bullying

  • Physical

  • Verbal

  • Emotional

  • Sexual

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Bullying and Peers

  • Perpetrator

  • Victim

  • Bystander - do not directly participate but reinforce the bully

  • Non-participant - do not participate, simply present, but take no action to prevent

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  • Passive-submissive – anxious, fearful, withdrawn, bully reinforced by occasioning the behavior

  • Provocative – display annoying and aggressive responses & thereby inadvertently reinforce the “bully”

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Gender Differences

  • Boys = “direct” physical / verbal intimidation

  • Girls = “indirect” gossip and rumors

  • Males = larger numbers of both bullies and victims

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Outcomes of bullying

  • Short term

    • Bully - reinforced – increases future bullying

    • Victim - somatic symptoms, fearful, avoidance

  • Long term

    • Bully

      • 60% grades 6-9 had been convicted of an aggressive crime in adulthood

      • More likely to be violent(Nansel et al, 2004).

      • More likely to have children who bully

    • Victim

      • depression, poor self esteem, suicide, school drop out

      • Ostracized by peers

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Bully Prevention Keys

  • School & home that is characterized as “warm” but sets firm limits for unacceptable behavior

  • When violations occur, non-hostile, nonphysical sanctions be consistently applied

  • Careful monitoring of student activities

  • Adults should act as responsible authorities during all adult-child interactions, especially when bullying occurs

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Bully Intervention Basics

  • Perpetrator- discourage / appropriate sanctions

  • Victim – teach strategies to appropriately avoid/escape situations that involve bullying & place in activities in which they can succeed to boost confidence

  • By-standers – make them aware of their supporting role and discourage them

  • Non-participants – teach them to discourage bullying and to not show approval if observed

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Action Planning

Start with Data

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Is Bullying a Problem

  • Student Data

    • Problem

    • Scared

    • How often

    • Types

  • Staff Data

    • Problem

    • Types & Frequency

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Are There High Risk Settings

  • Student & Staff Location

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Where Do Student Seek Help

  • Who

  • Have they contacted an adult

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  • 60 students commented that they see bullying in gym, P.E., and the locker room

  • “I felt embarrassed. I really didn't want to be in that situation”

  • “I hate it, it hurts me a lot!!!!”

  • “No one does anything enough to stop them anyway. There is too much of it.”

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  • “Not enough enforcement of the rules so more bullying is done.”

  • “Sometimes grown-ups don't understand or you can't tell them what you are going through because you are afraid they will get mad at you.”

  • “When there is bullying going on in the classroom some of the teachers see it and they hear but they don't do anything”

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  • Staff aware of District policy & procedures?

  • Top 5 strategies would use?

  • 5 Strategies would not use?

  • Other strategies listed?

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Implement and Monitor

Current Data collection captures bullying?

  • Office referral

  • Student/staff report

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For More Information

OSEP Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Missouri School-wide Positive Behavior Support

IDEAS that Work

What Works Clearinghouse