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HEAT STRESS. Vincent J. Giblin, General President. Phone: (304) 253-8674 Fax: (304) 253-7758 E-mail: [email protected] 1293 Airport Road Beaver, WV 25813.

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heat stress

HEAT STRESS

Vincent J. Giblin, General President

Phone: (304) 253-8674

Fax: (304) 253-7758

E-mail: [email protected]

1293 Airport Road

Beaver, WV 25813

slide2

This material was produced under grant number 46C5-HT16 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

recent heat related deaths
RECENT HEAT RELATED DEATHS
  • Korey Stringer 7-31-01
    • 27 Yrs Old 6’3” 335 lbs
  • Eraste Autin 7-25-01
    • 18 Yrs Old 6’2” 250 lbs
  • Preston Birdsong 8-13-00
    • 18 Yrs Old 5’11” 190 lbs

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

common factors worker vs athlete
COMMON FACTORS(Worker vs. Athlete)
  • Protective clothing
  • Focus on task at hand
  • Job security concerns
  • Desire to succeed
  • Desire to be accepted
  • Machismo
  • Peer pressure
  • Delayed thirst mechanism

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

u s heat stroke stats
U.S. HEAT STROKE STATS
  • At least 300 deaths/year
  • 7421 deaths from 1979-1998
  • 1700 deaths in 1980 alone
  • Causes more deaths annually than hurricanes, lightning, tornadoes, floods, and earthquakes combined
  • 18 high school and college football player deaths since 1995

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

physiological responses to overheating

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO OVERHEATING

English Translation: What happens when you get too dang hot

too dang hot results
“TOO DANG HOT RESULTS”
  • Excessive sweat loss results in dehydration
  • The body loses its ability to cool
  • Increased blood flow to skin causes decrease in organ function

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

heat related illnesses
HEAT-RELATED ILLNESSES
  • HEAT CRAMPS
  • HEAT EXHAUSTION
  • HEAT STROKE

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

heat cramps
HEAT CRAMPS
  • Caused by excessive loss of electrolytes
  • Early warning sign of heat stress
  • Painful cramps usually in legs or abdomen
  • Stop activity, hydrate, rest in cool place
  • Get medical attention if condition continues

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

heat exhaustion
HEAT EXHAUSTION
  • The body’s response to excessive water and electrolyte loss
  • Stop activity and seek treatment immediately

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

heat stroke
HEAT STROKE
  • The body’s cooling mechanism shuts down
  • 50% that reach the heat stroke stage die even with medical attention

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

live or die
HEAT EXHAUSTION

Skin is pale

Excessive sweating

May faint but usually conscious

Headache

Nausea and vomiting

Blurred vision

Dizziness

HEAT STROKE

Skin is red

No sweating

Unconscious or incoherent

LIVE OR DIE?

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

treatment
HEAT EXHAUSTION

Call 911

Rest in cool place

Loosen and remove unnecessary clothing

Shower or sponge with cool water

HEAT STROKE

Call 911

Immediate, aggressive, effective cooling

DO NOT give anything by mouth

Transport to hospital

TREATMENT

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

human risk factors
Poor nutrition

Poor physical condition

High and low % body fat

Previous heat illness

Lack of acclimatization

Over 40

Illness (diabetes, asthma)

Pregnancy

Diet plans

HUMAN RISK FACTORS

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

environmental risk factors
ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS
  • Air temperature
  • Direct sunlight
  • Radiant heat
  • Humidity
  • Little air movement

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

job risk factors
JOB RISK FACTORS
  • Work intensity
  • Work duration
  • Location (roof, road, enclosure)
  • Clothing (weight, impermeability)
  • Respiratory protection

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

worker responsibility
WORKER RESPONSIBILITY
  • Follow instructions of IH and health care professionals
  • Be watchful for symptoms (self and others)
  • Properly hydrate (before, during, after)
  • Get adequate rest
  • Avoid alcohol, unnecessary medication, and caffeine

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

management responsibility
Ensure that environmental conditions are monitored

Adjust work practices as necessary

Be watchful for signs of overexposure

Know workers medical history

Assure workers are properly trained

Conduct pre and post job safety meetings

Assure that affected workers receive treatment

MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

monitoring
MONITORING
  • Environmental monitoring
    • WBGT (heat index= temp+humidity+radiant) used for guidance in establishing work/rest ratio
  • Personnel monitoring
    • Oral thermometer
    • Ear probe
    • R*&%$! Thermometer
    • Core Temp
    • Pulse rate
    • Blood pressure

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

cooling wear
COOLING WEAR
  • Traditional ice vests
  • Chem-pack vests, headbands, & bandanas
  • Active cooling garment (water circulating)
  • SAR and PAPR with active cooling systems
  • New material development (breathable, lighter weight, waterproof)

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

cold stress

COLD STRESS

Hypothermia

cold stress hypothermia
Cold Stress (Hypothermia)
  • Acute problem resulting from prolonged cold exposure and heat loss
  • “Hypo” (too little) “Thermia” (heat)
  • 750 deaths/year in USA
  • Generally doesn’t present the same level of danger as heat stress
    • Does not occur as quickly
    • Workers will simply come in out of the cold
major causes
MAJOR CAUSES
  • Cold Temperatures
    • 41 degrees F is cold enough with other contributing factors
  • Improper clothing and equipment
  • Wetness
    • Sweating, contact with water
    • Water conducts heat away from the body 25 Xs faster than air
contributing factors
Contributing Factors
  • Fatigue
  • Dehydration
  • Hunger
  • Alcohol intake
cold stress hazards
SYSTEMIC

Hypothermia

LOCALIZED

Frostnip

Frostbite

Trench Foot

Cold Stress Hazards
signs and symptoms
Signs and Symptoms
  • Hypothermia
    • Body temp <95 degrees F
    • Euphoria
    • Slow weak pulse
    • Slurred speech
    • Shivering
    • Unconsciousness
signs and symptoms27
Frostnip/Frostbite

Itching/burning/numb

Skin color change

White

Grayish yellow

Reddish violet

Black

Trench Foot

Severe pain/itch/tingle

Swelling

Blisters

Signs and Symptoms
first aid
Hypothermia

Move to warm area

Remove wet clothing

Modest external warming

Blankets/heat packs

Drink warm sweet fluids (non-caffeinated)

Transport to hospital

Frostnip/Frostbite

Move to warm area

External warming

Warm water

Drink warm sweet fluids (non-caffeinated)

Treat as burn (do not rub)

Transport to hospital

First Aid
body response mechanisms
Body Response Mechanisms
  • Vasoconstriction
    • Blood vessel constriction
    • Reduces heat loss/makes skin better insulator
  • Shivering
    • Increases body temp as vasoconstriction fails
  • **NEITHER ARE AS EFFECTIVE AS SWEATING AND ACCLIMATION ARE FOR HEAT STRESS
behavior is the key
Behavior Is The Key!
  • Behavior is the primary protection factor for cold stress prevention
    • Increase clothing insulation
    • Increase activity
    • Seek warm location
    • Get the H$!! out of there
cold stress solutions
Cold Stress Solutions
  • Engineering Controls- Warming shelters, spot heating (i.e. hand warmers), minimize air movement (shielding)
  • Work Practices- fluid replacement, change wet clothes immediately, buddy system
  • Administration Controls-work/rest cycles, warm period work, allow for productivity reductions
  • PPE
clothing tips
Clothing Tips
  • Dress in Layers
    • Add or remove for comfort
    • Allows free movement and dexterity
  • Layer closest to skin should be “water vapor permeable”
    • Wicks away moisture, allows evaporation, prevents accumulation
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This material was produced under grant number 46C5-HT16 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

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END
  • This publication was made possible by grant numbers 5 U45 ES06182-13 AND 5 U45 ES09763-13 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH.
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