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Chapter 10. Review and Discussion. Invasions of Europe, 700–1000. More invaders Northmen: Norwegians, Swedes and Dane and Magyars. The Early Middle Ages. Rome Disappears Trade Slows Towns Empty Learning Ceases. Western Europe from 500 until 800 C.E. Roman law

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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

Review and Discussion

Invasions of Europe, 700–1000

More invaders Northmen: Norwegians, Swedes and Dane and Magyars.

The Early Middle Ages

  • Rome Disappears

    • Trade Slows

    • Towns Empty

    • Learning Ceases

Western Europe from 500 until 800 C.E.

  • Roman law

    • was replaced with laws practiced by Germanic peoples.

  • Economy

    • The economy was transformed as cities and urban areas declined.

    • use of currency as a medium of exchange became far less common.

  • Germanic decentralization

    • created a need for local self-sufficiency.

    • That need helped create the self-contained manor, with its corresponding political, economic, and social organization.

How did Feudalism begin?

  • People joined together to work against common problems.

  • Problems included:

    • Foreign invaders (Vikings)

    • lack of currency

    • lack of trade

    • food shortages.

Within the Feudal system…

  • There were many smaller feudal states

  • Usually they were located around a castle (a Keep) or church.

  • Consisted of:

    • Farmers

    • Laborers

    • Craftsmen

The Feudal System Classes

  • As a self-sufficient state (meaning there was little trade with outsiders), a culture developed within the feudal states.

  • Four (4) main classes developed:

    • Lords/Ladies

    • Lesser Lords (vassals)

    • Knights

    • Serfs/Peasants

Feudal System

  • Need for protection and lack of central government created the feudal system

  • Under the feudal system, every person had obligations to a superior  

  • Every person had a duty to someone else.  

The Lord and Lady

  • Were rulers of their small feudal state, and gave allegiance to the monarch.

  • Lived in a castle, which also served as a fortress for that feudal state.

  • Protected the serfs with their army of knights.

  • Arranged marriages, and male heirs were desired, since the estate went to the oldest son.

  • This was not necessarily easy, many children died before the age of 15 due to disease or accidents.

Lesser Lords (Vassals)

  • Lord divided his larger landholdings among Vassals

  • In return the Vassals pledged service to the Lord

  • Agreed to provide the lord with:

    • 40 days of military service each year

    • Money

    • Advice


  • Were members of the feudal army.

  • One job: Protect the state, and the lord and lady in charge of it.

  • They had many different weapons:

    • Mace (club)

    • Morning Star (spiked mace)

    • War Hammer

    • Battle Ax

    • Daggers

    • Lances (used more often in tournaments)


  • Like the middle class here, serfs were the vast majority in the feudal states, but they were poorer.

  • They were not slaves, but were farmers who owed some of their production to the feudal state.

  • In return, they received protection from the knights.

Feudal Manor

Medieval Homes

  • Most medieval homes were cold, damp, and dark.

  • For security purposes, windows, when they were present, were very small openings with wooden shutters that were closed at night or in bad weather.

  • Many peasant families ate, slept, and spent time together in very small quarters, rarely more than one or two rooms.

Age of Charlemagne

Charles the Great

Charlemagne: 800 CEThe Father of Europe

  • Charlemagne tried to create a united Christian Europe.

  • Try to revived Latin learning in his empire and strived to create a “second Rome.”

  • Established a central government over Western Europe (forerunner to the Holy Roman Empire)

It included Northern Italy, Germany, Belgium, and France)

Then Charlemagne Dies

  • His son Louis the Pious rules until his death and then the Empire is divided into three parts by the Treaty of Verdun (843).

  • Muslims claim the “Holy Land” and Mediterranean islands like Corsica and Sicily

  • Coronation of Otto I (Great) in 962

    • Officially recognized as Holy Roman Empire

    • Lasted until 1806


  • Western Europe secured its borders against invaders and grew economically

  • 1066-Vikings also settled Iceland and Normandy, from which the Norman William the Conqueror invaded England in.

  • 1076- Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV

  • 1096- Christians launch first crusade

  • 1215-King John signs the Magna Carta

  • 1226- Louis IX becomes King of France

  • 1347- Black Death breaks out in Italy

  • 1429- Joan of Arc leads French armies against the English

  • 1492- Spanish complete Reconquista

The Magna Carta

  • Many Kings in England around the 10th - 12th centuries were abusing their power and highly taxing their nobles.

  • In 1215 King John angered his nobles so much that they forcibly made John sign a document called the Magna Carta (or Great Charter)

  • Contained two basic ideas that would shape English govt.

    • Nobles had certain rights (later this was extended to all citizens)

    • Made clear that the monarch must obey the law.

Modern Liberties Founded in the Magna Carta

  • Taxation only with representation

  • -no unusual taxes accept by agreement of people’s representatives

  • Right to trial

  • -trial to be proven guilty by peers

  • Limits to royal power

  • English subjects had certain liberties

  • power was shared between the king and the people’s representatives in the Great Council

  • Parliament developed into a 2 house body

    • House of Lords -nobles and clergy

    • House of Commons -knights and middle class

Conflicts between rulers and Emperors

  • Many German emperors tried to become more powerful than the pope.

  • This cause the pope to sometimes send an interdict- a whole community would be excommunicated from the church.

  • Many rulers gave into this pressure.

Logic vs Faith…The rivalry

  • Aristotle= Use Logic to find out the Truth

  • Church= Use Faith to find out the truth

  • Others found a way to merge the 2 together

    It is called “Scholasticism”

Byzantine Empire to 1000

How did the development of the Byzantine Empire differ from the development of western Europe?

  • The Byzantine Empire

    • was the direct descendant of Roman imperial rule and tradition.

    • centralized control whereas western European institutions were decentralized.

  • The Byzantine emperors

    • exercised caesaropapism, which combined supreme secular and religious power in one person Foreign threats

    • Byzantium was directly threatened by foreign invaders, especially the Iranian Sasanid Empire (4th to 7th century) and ultimately by Muslim expansion.

  • The Byzantine Empire shrank steadily until Constantinople itself was captured by the Ottomans in 1453.

Sum it up:Justinian’s Achievements

  • Recapture Roman Lands

  • Architecture

  • Hagia Sophia

  • Bridges

  • Civil Law Code: influenced civil law in the west

Procopius: Secret History: Justinian

More Hagia Sophia

Roman Christianity

  • Pope controlled Church affairs

  • People accepted pope’s claim to authority over all Christians

  • Clergy prohibited from marrying

  • Latin was language of the Church

Christianity in East and West: Great Schism

  • 1054 – Differences between east and west provoked a schism, or permanent split, between the Eastern (Greek) Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Church.

  • Disagreed on

    • Sacrament of communion, priest should marry, local language, nature of god (trinity), placement of icons

Review the Reasons for Decline

Crusades, 1096–1204

The Crusades (1096-1099)

  • Muslims conquered the Holy land. (Jerusalem)

  • Pope Urban II called nobles to action against the Muslims: “ An accursed race… has violently invaded the lands of those Christians and has depopulated them by pillage and fire.” After he said this he called for a crusade or Holy war to take back the Holy land.


  • Soon thousands of knights were on their way to The Holy Land.

  • On their tunics and shields they sewed crosses

  • Why did so many “take up the cross?”

    • Religious reasons

    • Knights hoped to win wealth and land

    • adventure and to get away from home struggles

Fourth Crusade, 1202-1204

  • Pope Innocent III called for the crusade

  • Few reached the Holy Lands most attacked Constantinople

  • After 200 years of fighting, the Holy Land was again Muslim control!

Children’s Crusade, 1212

  • 30,000 French and German children set out to save Jerusalem!

  • Sadly, most die or are sold in slavery by evil merchants!

Impact of the Crusades

  • The Crusades failed in their chief goal- reclaiming the holy lands.

  • Both Christians and Muslims committed appalling acts in the name of religion.

  • Christians turned their fury against Jews, massacring entire communities.

  • Helped change Europe to more of a trading society. Western Europeans wanted the silk, spices and perfumes from the east.

  • Brought the power of the pope to its greatest height.

  • Encouraged a money society

  • Gave serfs more power because nobles needed rent MONEY instead of grain for pay

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