Constructing learner centered assessment designs systems and outcomes
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Constructing Learner-Centered Assessment: Designs, Systems, and Outcomes. Steven J. Ross SPS-KGU Kobe-Sanda, Japan. Preliminaries. Proficiency: absolute (criterion-referenced) or relative (norm-referenced) abilities in language domain irrespective of context.

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Constructing Learner-Centered Assessment: Designs, Systems, and Outcomes

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Constructing learner centered assessment designs systems and outcomes

Constructing Learner-Centered Assessment: Designs, Systems, and Outcomes

Steven J. Ross

SPS-KGU

Kobe-Sanda, Japan


Preliminaries

Preliminaries

  • Proficiency: absolute (criterion-referenced) or relative (norm-referenced) abilities in language domain irrespective of context.

  • Achievement: absolute (criterion-referenced) or dynamic (growth-referenced) learning based on a syllabus

  • Self-and-Peer Assessments here refer to school-based achievement assessment.


Rationale for sba

Rationale for SBA

  • Not all learners are extrinsically motivated

  • Instrumental motivation is the norm

  • Motivational void is often large in foreign/second language learning

  • Locus of control is mostly external

  • Learner empowerment for self-and-peer assessment may shift motivation


Passivity

Passivity

  • Most language learners are socialized into taking a passive role

  • Assessment is done to them, rather than what they can do for themselves.

  • The goal is to gradually shift from passive to active participation in assessment


Achievement components

Achievement Components

  • Teachers’ on-going record of individual student performance on achievement tasks.

  • Learner self-assessment of absolute mastery and dynamic change

  • Peer-assessment of cooperative learning contribution and performances on achievement tasks


Adjusting self assessment

Adjusting Self-Assessment

  • Achievement is more validly assessed than proficiency

  • Achievement is experiential with episodic memory for reference

  • Proficiency events may be too abstract and not directly experienced

  • Over-estimation (low) and under-estimation (high) prevalent in neophytes


Factors in peer assessment

Factors in Peer-Assessment

  • Benchmarking is advisable in early dry run simulations

  • Quality standards need to be established early on

  • PA can be misinterpreted as popularity

  • Learners often need assessment training


Triangulation

Triangulation

  • Teacher, Self, and Peer Assessments should correlate with each other

  • Early and frequent data collection can facilitate calibration of the assessment system

  • Learners need to be aware of importance of assessment validity

  • Self and Peer assessment has to count towards record of achievement.


The research fair as goal

The Research Fair as Goal

  • Semester or Annual Event

  • Language curriculum can be designed around the RF: e.g., seminars and presentation courses.

  • One year (presentation course) or two year (seminar) preparation time frame

  • Groups nominate research theme

  • Cooperative learning (research, analysis, rehearsal, in-class and RF presentation)


Assessment content

Assessment Content

  • Cooperative learning projects are ideal

  • In and out of class group preparation for presentations

  • Group presentation can be globally and locally peer- assessed

  • Individual presentations can be globally and locally peer-assessed


Assessment contexts

Assessment Contexts


Research fair project assessment

Research Fair Project Assessment


In class project assessment

In-Class Project Assessment


Individual global peer assessment

Individual Global Peer-Assessment


Global peer assessment criteria

Global Peer-Assessment Criteria

  • Clarity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  • Voice 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  • Eye Contact 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  • Organization 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  • Balance of Roles 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  • Originality 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


In group peer assessment criteria

In-Group Peer Assessment Criteria

  • Cooperation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  • Contribution 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  • Initiative 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  • Effort 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  • Attitude 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  • Expertise 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


Reflective self assessment

Reflective Self-Assessment

  • Contribution 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  • Effort 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  • Revision 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  • Growth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  • Cooperation 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  • Motivation 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


Potential long term benefits

Potential Long-Term Benefits

  • Most learners join the work force after graduation

  • Presentation skills are developed

  • Group cooperation skills are developed

  • Technical skills (computers, Power Point, etc) are developed

  • Confidence may be enhanced

  • Language proficiency increases


Organisational troubleshooting

Organisational Troubleshooting

  • Organizational workload issues

  • Delegation of task management

  • Assessment monitors in Research Fair

  • Using technology for frequent peer-assessment

  • Archiving continuous assessment


Toward formative assessment

Toward Formative Assessment

  • Self-and-Peer Assessments can be either summative or formative: usually summative before formative.

  • Early-mid-final assessments can capture dynamic changes.

  • Achievement assessment can credit both absolute performance and growth over time.


A systems analysis approach to assessment design

A Systems Analysis Approach to Assessment Design

  • Engineered Cooperative Learning Events

  • Self-and-Peer Assessment training

  • Inclusion of dynamic improvement criteria

  • Efficient data collection

  • Efficient data storage and retrieval

  • Efficient data analysis

  • Triangulation and validation


Empirical research evidence

Empirical Research Evidence

  • Longitudinal Sequential Cohort Design

  • S1 S2 S3 S4 F1 F2 F3 F4

  • Each cohort contains about 250 students

  • S1 to S4 employed mostly summative assessments

  • F1 to F4 employed increasingly more formative assessments


Assessment practice shift

Assessment Practice Shift


Preliminary outcomes listening proficiency toefl

Preliminary Outcomes: Listening Proficiency (TOEFL)


Preliminary outcomes reading proficiency toefl

Preliminary Outcomes Reading Proficiency (TOEFL)


Research agenda

Research Agenda

  • Longitudinal comparative impact analyses of formative vs summative assessment

  • Peer-assessment training impacts

  • Analysis of self-assessment residuals (differences between predicted and observed self-assessments)

  • Motivational change over time as a consequence of formative assessment


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