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Chapter 13 . Survey Designs. Key Ideas. Intent and use of survey research Types of survey designs Key characteristics of a survey Constructing survey questionnaires Designing and conducting survey interviews What are the steps in the process of conducting survey research?

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Chapter 13

Chapter 13

Survey Designs

Power Point Slides by Ronald J. Shope in collaboration with John W. Creswell


Key ideas
Key Ideas

  • Intent and use of survey research

  • Types of survey designs

  • Key characteristics of a survey

  • Constructing survey questionnaires

  • Designing and conducting survey interviews

  • What are the steps in the process of conducting survey research?

  • How do you evaluate survey research?

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


What is survey research
What is survey research?

  • Survey research designs are procedures in quantitative research in which investigators administer a survey to a sample or to the entire population of people in order to describe the attitudes, opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of the population.

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


When do you use a survey
When do you use a survey?

  • Assess trends

  • Opinions, beliefs, and attitudes

  • Follow-up analyses

  • Evaluations

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


How did survey research develop
How did survey research develop?

  • 1817 International Survey of Education Systems

  • 1890 Stanley Hall survey of children

  • 1907 the Pittsburgh Survey examined social problems

  • WWI and WWII sampling techniques improved

  • Applications began to vary from social science to media

  • Universities established social science research centers

  • Private organizations such as Gallup, Rand Corporation, and Roper formed

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


What are the types of survey designs

Time of Data Collection

Study Over Time

Study at One Point in Time

Longitudinal

Cross-sectional

Changes

in a

sub-population

group identified

by a common

characteristic

over time

Trends in

the same

population

over time

Changes

in the

same

people

over time

Attitudes

and

Practices

Community

Needs

Program

Evaluation

Group

Comparisons

National

Assessment

Trend

Cohort

Panel

What are the types of survey designs?

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


What are key characteristics of survey research
What are key characteristics of survey research?

  • Sampling from a population

  • Collecting data through questionnaires or interviews

  • Designing instruments for data collection

  • Obtaining a high response rate

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


Population target population sampling frame sample
Population, Target Population, Sampling Frame, Sample

The Population

The group of individuals having one characteristic that distinguishes them from other groups.

The Target Population or Sampling Frame

The actual list of sampling units from which the sample is selected.

The Sample

The group of participants in a study selected

from the target population from which the

researcher generalizes to the target population.

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


Reducing error in survey research
Reducing error in survey research

  • Reducing Coverage Error: have a good sampling frame list on which to select individuals

  • Reducing Sampling Error: select as large a sample from the population as possible

  • Reducing Measurement Error: use a good instrument with clear, unambiguous questions and response options

  • Reducing non-response error: use rigorous administration procedures to achieve as large a return rate as possible

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


Forms of data collection based on who completes or records the data
Forms of data collection based on who completes or records the data

Who Completes or Records the Data?

Participant

Researcher

Mailed

Questionnaire

Electronic

Questionnaire

To a

Group

One on

One

Over

Telephone

Individual

Interview

Focus Group

Interview

Telephone

Interview

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


Aspects of survey instrument design
Aspects of survey instrument design the data

  • Personal

  • Attitudinal

  • Behavioral

  • Sensitive

  • Scale

  • Open-ended

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


Question construction problems
Question construction problems the data

  • Question is unclear

  • Multiple questions

  • Question is wordy

  • Question is negatively worded

  • Overlapping responses

  • Unbalanced response options

  • Mismatch between questions and answers

  • Question includes overly technical language

  • Not all questions are applicable to all the participants

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


Pilot testing
Pilot testing the data

  • Test on a small number of individuals in the sample

  • Ask for written feedback on the questions

  • Revise the survey based on the written comments

  • Exclude the pilot participants from the final sample for the study

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


Response rate
Response rate the data

  • Mail out original questionnaire with cover letter

  • Follow it in two weeks with a second mailing of questionnaire to those who have not responded

  • Follow again in two weeks with a postcard to non-respondents reminding them to complete the questionnaire

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


Three phase survey administration procedure
Three phase survey administration procedure the data

Step 2:

Second Mailing

of Survey

Step 3:

Postcard

Mailing

Step 1:

First Mailing

of Survey

2 Weeks

2 Weeks

2 Weeks

6 Weeks

Start

Time

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


Planning and conducting a mailed questionnaire survey
Planning and conducting a mailed questionnaire survey the data

  • Write a cover letter to invite the participants to complete the questionnaire

  • Form and construct the questionnaire

  • Identify what statistical procedures will be used to analyze data from the mailed questionnaire

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


Planning and designing an interview survey
Planning and designing an interview survey the data

  • The interviewer should maintain a neutral stance during the interview

  • Train the interviewers prior to the interview

  • Take good notes of responses or use a tape recorder

  • For telephone interviews, develop a telephone interview guide prior to the interview

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


Steps in conducting survey research
Steps in conducting survey research the data

  • Decide if a survey is the best deign to use

  • Identify the research questions or hypotheses

  • Identify the population, the sampling frame and the sample

  • Determine the survey design and data collection procedures

  • Develop or locate an instrument

  • Administer the instrument

  • Analyze the data to address the research questions or hypotheses

  • Write the report

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


Evaluating survey research
Evaluating survey research the data

  • Was the target population or sampling frame clearly specified?

  • Was the sampling procedure specified? If a random sample was not used, were modifications from it explained?

  • Was the sample clearly identified and the basis on which it was chosen specified?

  • Did the type of survey match the questions or hypotheses advanced by the author?

  • Was it clear whether a questionnaire or an interview survey comprised the form of data collection? Did the researcher identify the basis for selecting or developing the instrument?

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


Evaluating survey research1
Evaluating survey research the data

  • Was information reported on reliability and validity of scores from past use of the questionnaire or interview?

  • Did the author mention the dates on which the questionnaire or interview was administered?

  • Were the administration procedures clearly identified?

  • If a questionnaire was used, were the procedures for obtaining responses identified? Were follow-up procedures used to ensure a high response rate?

  • Did the data analysis match the research questions or hypothesis to be answered in the study?

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


Evaluating survey research2
Evaluating survey research the data

  • If an interview was used, were the field procedures for collecting this information specified? Were demographic characteristics, previous experience, training, and monitoring discussed for the interviewer(s)?

  • Did the researcher check on the reliability and validity of scores from the data collection in the study?

  • Was the study written scientifically and ethically?

Educational Research 2e: Creswell


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