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Pennsylvania Regeneration and Invasives Research William H. McWilliams

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Pennsylvania Regeneration and Invasives Research William H. McWilliams Northeastern FIA User’s Workshop April 13, 2004 – Sturbridge, MA. Justification. Study Design and Analysis Techniques. Results. Beech. Blackgum. Hawthorn. Sassafras. Black Birch. Striped Maple.

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slide1

Pennsylvania Regeneration and Invasives Research

William H. McWilliams

Northeastern FIA User’s Workshop

April 13, 2004 – Sturbridge, MA

Justification

Study Design and Analysis Techniques

Results

slide2

Beech

Blackgum

Hawthorn

Sassafras

Black Birch

Striped Maple

Structure is Changing: Overstory vs. Understory

Comparison of Composition by Tree Size – Top Ten Species

slide3

Study Team

Dan Devlin, Stephen L. Sterner

NE RWU 4152: Pat Brose, Harry Steele, Susan Stout

NE RWU 4557: Kurt Gottschalk, Gary Miller

NE RWU 4801: William H. McWilliams, Susan King, Tonya W. Lister,

Brian M. LaPointe, Charles T. Scott, James A. Westfall

Robert White, Lois DeMarco

Todd Bowersox, Jim Finley, Larry McCormick,

Kim Steiner

Goal: Develop Indicators of Regenerative Capacity

for Pennsylvania Forests Using FIA Samples.

slide4

Designing the Sample – Pilot Study

FIA Sample

  • Goals
  • Determine how many microplots are

needed to quantify size and composition

of tree-seedling component.

  • Debug other measurement protocols.

An analysis of CV showed that a

single microplot was sufficient.

slide5

Designing the Sample – Sub-Paneling

Interpenetrating Sub-Panel of FIA Sample Locations

(collected during leaf-on window, June-August)

Five-Year Panel

Year One

Year Two

Regeneration Sample

Year Three

Year Four

Year Five

1

2

3

4

3

5

4

1

5

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

5

3

1

4

5

1

2

3

slide6

Designing the Sample – Three Levels

Sample Location Level

Deer Impact: Record on of five Deer Impact classes:

(after Marquis et al. 1994)

Very Low

Low

Medium

High

Very High

Microplot Level

Site limitations

Dominant Tree: If present, record the species of the

most dominant tree at least 5.0 inches

in diameter.

Seedling Tally: Count all established seedlings at

least 2” tall by:

Species

Seedling Source (stump sprout and other)

Stump Sprout

Other Seedling

Competitive oak, hickory, walnut, or butternut seedling

Height Class

2 inches to 6 inches 3 feet to 5 feet

6 inches to 1 foot 5 feet to 10 feet

1 foot to 3 feet Greater than 10 feet

Numbers of seedlings

Subplot Level

Site Limitations

Associated Understory Vegetation: Assign Percent cover classes to Species/Life Form.

Species/Life Form

Shrubs (FIA’s detailed code)

Vines (FIA’s detailed code)

Fern (Bracken, Hay-Scented, and New York)

Other fern

Grass

Other herbaceous

Percent Cover Class (after Marquis et al 1994)

The subplot is also where

we tally Exotic Invasives,

more on this later..

slide7

Analyzing the Results

Canopy-Replacement Species Grouping

Dominants: canopy dominants*

Other High Canopy: add other high-canopy species

Woody: add all other tree species

* all species with at least 2-percent of the State’s

biomass and typically form high canopy

Timber-Based Species Grouping

Desirable: species desired for timber management

Other Commercial: add other commercial species

Woody: add all other tree species

Analysis: applied regeneration guidelines for Pennsylvania and evaluated the

results after screening for plots where the forest floor receives

enough light for seedling development.

slide8

Regeneration Study - Results

Percent of Samples Meeting Regeneration Criteria, TimberGroup – High Deer:

Desirable Commercial Woody

36 % 50 % 57 %

Interpretation:

Desirable: about two-thirds would likely fail

to regenerate.

Commercial: about half would likely fail.

Woody: over 40 % would likely fail.

slide9

Plateau

Desirable Commercial Woody

28 % 44 % 48 %

Central Appalachian

Desirable Commercial Woody

37 % 54 % 60 %

Regeneration Study – Results – Ecoregion

Western Broadleaf - West

Desirable Commercial Woody

44 % 51 % 61 %

Eastern Broadleaf - East

Desirable Commercial Woody

36 % 54 % 64 %

slide10

Exotic Invasive Species - Justification

Chief’s Agenda

Ann Bartuska’s Agenda

Bureau of Forestry

The Nature Conservancy

Morris Arboretum

slide11

Exotics Survey – New in 2003

Regeneration Study Plots used to tally

thirty-one species of Exotic Invasive

trees, shrubs, vines, grasses and forbes.

Results are forthcoming:

- Distribution Maps

- Correlation

slide12

Future Research Needs

Develop indicators for associated understory vegetation.

Develop an understory vegetation community classification system.

Relate levels of associated understory vegetation to regeneration success.

Incorporate invasive species data.

Analyze results for specific forest types, for example mixed oak.

Explore relationships between overstory and understory composition.

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