Knowledge management
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Knowledge Management. The nature of KM A process model for KM KM and KE . What is knowledge management?. Knowledge is seen as a resource This means for knowledge management taking care that the resource is delivered at the right time available at the right place present in the right shape

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Knowledge Management

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Knowledge management

Knowledge Management

The nature of KM

A process model for KM

KM and KE

What is knowledge management

What is knowledge management?

  • Knowledge is seen as a resource

  • This means for knowledge management taking care that the resource is

    • delivered at the right time

    • available at the right place

    • present in the right shape

    • satisfying the quality requirements

    • obtained at the lowest possible costs

  • to be used in business processes

Why is knowledge management different

Why is knowledge management different?

  • Due to specific properties of knowledge:

    • intangible and difficult to measure

    • volatility

    • embodied in agents with wills

    • not “consumed” in a process, can increase through use

    • wide ranging organizational impacts

    • long lead times

    • non-rival, can be used by different processes at the same time

Continuous improvement of knowledge assets

Continuous improvement of knowledge assets

Knowledge assets

Construct new


Apply your

best knowledge

Value chain

Organization and improvement of care for knowledge

Organization and improvement of care for knowledge

Application of







Modes of knowledge management

Modes of Knowledge Management

  • Strategic:

    • What are the general changes to the knowledge infrastructure?

  • Operational:

    • Organization the actual implementation and usage of the knowledge infrastructure.

Levels in knowledge management

Levels in knowledge management

Knowledge management cycle

Knowledge management cycle

Knowledge object level

Knowledge object level

Four ambitions

Four ambitions









- process

- working







- competition

Use the








Products &



products &








Every ambition requires specific actions

(Source: Wiig on basis of Deming’s work)

Conceptualize the knowledge

Conceptualize the knowledge

  • The Organizational Model is a good starting point for creating a knowledge map.

  • The Task Model is a good starting point of charting out where the knowledge is used.

  • The agent model is good for analyzing who owns the knowledge and who uses it.

  • Knowledge items are central in KM.

Conceptualize main activities

Conceptualize: main activities

  • Inventarization of knowledge and organizational context

  • Analysis of strong and weak points: the value of knowledge

  • Should deliver insights which can be used in the next step for defining of and deciding between improvements

Reflect bottleneck opportunity analysis

Reflect: bottleneck / opportunity analysis

  • Can be done by using knowledge item descriptions, generic bottleneck / opportunity types:

    • time (only available during a limited period, queuing, delay)

    • location (not available at the point where needed, delay and communication, “many windows”)

    • form (difficult to understand, translation processes, reformulation of knowledge)

    • nature (quality of knowledge, heuristic, standardization)

    • stability (high rates of change, need to be up dated)

    • current agents (vulnerability, carrier can/will leave, few agents listed)

    • use in processes (limited re-use, reinventing the wheel)

    • proficiency levels (current agents not well skilled, opportunity to “sell” knowledge)

Act interventions

Act: interventions

  • Management, human resources and culture

    • Education and training

    • Reward system

    • Recruitment and selection

    • Management behavior

  • Jobs & organizational structure

    • Staff department knowledge and strategy

    • Department lessons learned

    • Introduction of a 'buddy' system

    • Teams with overlapping knowledge areas

    • Out sourcing

    • Acquiring and selling organizations

Act interventions 2

Act: interventions (2)

  • (Technological) tools

    • Intranets & internet for knowledge sharing & Lessons learned architectures

    • Groupware-based applications with ‘knowledge’ databases (best practices)

    • Decision Support Systems (expert systems, case repositories, simulations)

    • 'who knows what' guide (‘knowledge map’)

    • Data mining

    • Employee information system with knowledge profiling

    • Document retrieval systems with advanced indexing & retrieval mechanisms

Knowledge management knowledge engineering

Knowledge management & knowledge engineering

  • Organization analysis feeds into knowledge management (and vice versa)

  • Knowledge modeling provides techniques for knowledge identification and development

  • Knowledge engineering focuses on common / reusable elements in knowledge work

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