Download

Gerunds and Infinitives






Advertisement
/ 44 []
Download Presentation
Comments
johana
From:
|  
(4269) |   (0) |   (0)
Views: 42 | Added:
Rate Presentation: 1 0
Description:
Gerunds and Infinitives. Gerunds and infinitives can function as: NOUNS ( subjects, objects, subject complements) As subjects, they take a singular verb. Only Gerunds can be object of the preposition.
Gerunds and Infinitives

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only and may not be sold or licensed nor shared on other sites. SlideServe reserves the right to change this policy at anytime. While downloading, If for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.











- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




Slide 1

Gerunds and Infinitives

Slide 2

Gerunds and infinitivescan function as:NOUNS(subjects, objects, subject complements) As subjects, they take a singular verb. Only Gerunds can be object of the preposition.

Slide 3

To form gerunds, usethe base form + ing(don’t’ forget the rules for spelling of ing form of verbs)I enjoy learning EnglishTo form negative gerunds, use not + gerundNot speaking English well is my biggest problem in this country.

Slide 4

Gerunds used as subject of the sentence.

Dancing is fun.

Slide 5

Gerunds used as objects

He enjoys working with children.

Slide 6

Appreciate

Avoid

Delay

Deny

Discuss

Dislike

Enjoy

Excuse

Finish

understand

Keep

Mention

Mind

Miss

Postpone

Quit

Recall

Recommend

Resent

suggest

Verbs that take only Gerunds

Slide 7

Gerunds used as object of the preposition

I am thinking abouttaking the children to Mexico.

Slide 8

Common preposition combinations followed by gerunds

  • Be excited about, complain about, talk about, think about, worry about

  • Apologize for, blame for, famous for

  • Believe in, interested in, succeed in

  • Take care of, instead of, be accused of

  • Insist on, count on, concentrate on

  • Keep from, prevent from, profit from

  • In addition to, look forward to, be used to

Slide 9

By + gerundYou get good grades by studying hard.go + gerundRecreational activities: camping, dancing,sightseeing, swimming, skiing, fishing, jogging,I willgo fishingwith you tomorrow.

Slide 10

Some expressions are used with gerunds

Be busy, can’t help, have fun,

it’s no use, it’s not worth

Slide 11

To form infinitives useto + base form of the verbI want to danceTo form negative infinitives useNot + infinitiveHe decided not to go to the party.

Slide 12

Infinitives in the subject position

To live in the United States is my dream

It is my dream to live in the United States.

Slide 13

Verb + infinitives – agree, appear, decide

hope, intend, learn, offer, plan, seem, tend, wait, can afford

Verb + Noun phrase + infinitive – cause, convince, force, invite, order, persuade, remind, tell, trust, warn, advise, encourage

Verbs that come directly after the infinitive or have a noun phrase – ask, beg, choose, expect, need, want, would like, promise

Verbs that take infinitives

Slide 14

Adjectives followed by infinitives

Afraid, amazed, anxious, ashamed, careful, delighted, eager, fortunate, glad, happy, lucky, pleased, ready, sad, sorry,

Slide 15

Infinitive of purpose

In order to

I came here in order to learn.

Slide 16

Infinitive with too and enoughtoo + adjective or adverb + infinitiveShe is too young to vote.Adjective or adverb + enough + infinitiveThey are old enough to vote.

Slide 17

Gerunds often follow verbs that indicate that an action is happening or has happened.The action expressed by the verb comes at the same time or after the action expressed by the gerund.We enjoy going to concerts. (you can only enjoy things you are doing or have done – not things you haven’t done yet.)

Slide 18

Infinitives often follow verbs that indicate that an action will or could happen.The action expressed by the verb comes before the action expressed by the infinitive.We hope to go to the concert.(You can hope for things that could happennot things that have already happened)

Slide 19

Verbs that are followed by a noun phrase + infinitivecan also be followed by a gerund.The gerund makes it general and the infinitive make specific the person indicated.Theyallow smokingin this building.Theyallowed me to smokein thehouse.

Slide 20

These verbs are:adviseallowencouragepermitrequireurge

Slide 21

Some verbs can be followed by both gerund or infinitive with no change in meaning.Begin, hate, like,start, love, prefer, continue

Slide 22

I like cooking.I like to cook.She started losing weightShe started to lose weight.

Slide 23

Some verbs although they can be used after both gerunds and infinitives have a difference in meaning. rememberforgetregretstoptryget

Slide 24

She stopped smoking.She stopped to smoke.They forgot buying bread.They forgot to buy bread.

Slide 25

Used toBe used toGet used toUsed to + base formBe used to + gerundGet used to + gerund

Slide 26

Verbs of perception:infinitives: from start to finishGerunds: in progressI heard the children cry.I saw your friends walking in the park.

Slide 27

Infinitive forms are not used after the following verbs of perception:feelseehearsmell

Slide 28

When a specific performer of the gerund action needs to be indicated, a possessive noun or a possessive determiner is used.I really appreciate Karen’s/herwriting that letter for me.Peter’s/his coming late really annoys me.

Slide 29

Your neglecting your teeth will cause an earlier return to the dentist.Their denying the allegation was understandable.I didn’t like the dog’s barking all night.

Slide 30

I don’t mind his leaving early.(formal)I don’t mind him leaving early.(informal)

Slide 31

When an infinitive functions as a subject or a subject complement, any stated subject of the infinitive should be preceded by for. If a pronoun follows for, it must be in object form.When the subject of a gerund is stated, it takes the possessive form.

Slide 32

For people to see is a wonderful gift.Her desire was for them to take a trip around the worldThey hoped for her to be able to attend the concert.

Slide 33

Infinitives can occur in the progressive but gerunds cannot.To be doingIt is used to indicate an activity in progress or ongoingShe had hoped to be working

Slide 34

Both gerunds and infinitives can occur in the perfect formhaving doneto have doneIt is used to indicate that the activity is in the pastWe appreciate having heard her sing.We’re fortunate to have heard her sing

Slide 35

A gerund can be used in the passive formI dislike being told a lie.

Slide 36

Havemakeletare causative verbs. They cause someone to do something.They are always followed by a noun phrase + base form of verb.Do not use an infinitive after these verbs.She made mefall.

Slide 37

She madeher daughtergo to the party.She lethimtake the camera.She hadmeprepare breakfast yesterday.

Slide 38

After causative verbs:getconvincepersuadeuse the infinitiveShe got me to work.She convinced me to work.

Slide 39

Sense-perception verbs:hear, listen tofeel, smell, seewatch, observe, noticeare followed by either a noun phrase + base or –ing form with only a slight difference in meaning.

Slide 40

We saw people living in poverty.We saw them perform

Slide 41

Helpcan take an infinitive or base form.It can occur with or without a noun phrase.I helpedthem carrythe boxes.I helpedthem to clean upafter theparty.

Slide 42

perfect infinitive: to have movedprogressive infinitive: to be workingperfect progressive infinitive:to have been playingpassive: to be seenperfect passive: to have been chosen

Slide 43

Perfect gerund: having movedpassive gerund: being doneperfect passive gerund: having been selected

Slide 44

The End!


Copyright © 2014 SlideServe. All rights reserved | Powered By DigitalOfficePro