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1. Gerunds and Infinitives
2. Gerunds and infinitives can function as:NOUNS(subjects, objects, subject complements) As subjects, they take a singular verb. Only Gerunds can be object of the preposition.
3. To form gerunds, usethe base form + ing(don?t? forget the rules for spelling of ing form of verbs)I enjoy learning EnglishTo form negative gerunds, use not + gerundNot speaking English well is my biggest problem in this country.
4. Gerunds used as subject of the sentence. Dancing is fun.
5. Gerunds used as objects He enjoys working with children.
6. Verbs that take only Gerunds Appreciate
7. Gerunds used as object of the preposition I am thinking about taking the children to Mexico.
8. Common preposition combinations followed by gerunds Be excited about, complain about, talk about, think about, worry about
Apologize for, blame for, famous for
Believe in, interested in, succeed in
Take care of, instead of, be accused of
Insist on, count on, concentrate on
Keep from, prevent from, profit from
In addition to, look forward to, be used to
9. By + gerundYou get good grades by studying hard.go + gerundRecreational activities: camping, dancing,sightseeing, swimming, skiing, fishing, jogging,I will go fishing with you tomorrow.
10. Some expressions are used with gerunds Be busy, can?t help, have fun,
it?s no use, it?s not worth
11. To form infinitives useto + base form of the verbI want to danceTo form negative infinitives useNot + infinitiveHe decided not to go to the party.
12. Infinitives in the subject position To live in the United States is my dream
It is my dream to live in the United States.
13. Verbs that take infinitives Verb + infinitives ? agree, appear, decide
hope, intend, learn, offer, plan, seem, tend, wait, can afford
Verb + Noun phrase + infinitive ? cause, convince, force, invite, order, persuade, remind, tell, trust, warn, advise, encourage
Verbs that come directly after the infinitive or have a noun phrase ? ask, beg, choose, expect, need, want, would like, promise
14. Adjectives followed by infinitives Afraid, amazed, anxious, ashamed, careful, delighted, eager, fortunate, glad, happy, lucky, pleased, ready, sad, sorry,
15. Infinitive of purpose In order to
I came here in order to learn.
16. Infinitive with too and enoughtoo + adjective or adverb + infinitiveShe is too young to vote.Adjective or adverb + enough + infinitiveThey are old enough to vote.
17. Gerunds often follow verbs that indicate that an action is happening or has happened.The action expressed by the verb comes at the same time or after the action expressed by the gerund.We enjoy going to concerts. (you can only enjoy things you are doing or have done ? not things you haven?t done yet.)
18. Infinitives often follow verbs that indicate that an action will or could happen.The action expressed by the verb comes before the action expressed by the infinitive.We hope to go to the concert.(You can hope for things that could happennot things that have already happened)
19. Verbs that are followed by a noun phrase + infinitivecan also be followed by a gerund.The gerund makes it general and the infinitive make specific the person indicated.They allow smoking in this building.They allowed me to smoke in the house.
20. These verbs are:adviseallowencouragepermitrequireurge
21. Some verbs can be followed by both gerund or infinitive with no change in meaning.Begin, hate, like,start, love, prefer, continue
22. I like cooking.I like to cook.She started losing weightShe started to lose weight.
23. Some verbs although they can be used after both gerunds and infinitives have a difference in meaning. rememberforgetregretstoptryget
24. She stopped smoking.She stopped to smoke.They forgot buying bread.They forgot to buy bread.
25. Used toBe used toGet used toUsed to + base formBe used to + gerundGet used to + gerund
26. Verbs of perception:infinitives: from start to finishGerunds: in progressI heard the children cry.I saw your friends walking in the park.
27. Infinitive forms are not used after the following verbs of perception:feelseehearsmell
28. When a specific performer of the gerund action needs to be indicated, a possessive noun or a possessive determiner is used.I really appreciate Karen?s/her writing that letter for me.Peter?s/his coming late really annoys me.
29. Your neglecting your teeth will cause an earlier return to the dentist.Their denying the allegation was understandable.I didn?t like the dog?s barking all night.
30. I don?t mind his leaving early.(formal)I don?t mind him leaving early.(informal)
31. When an infinitive functions as a subject or a subject complement, any stated subject of the infinitive should be preceded by for. If a pronoun follows for, it must be in object form.When the subject of a gerund is stated, it takes the possessive form.
32. For people to see is a wonderful gift.Her desire was for them to take a trip around the worldThey hoped for her to be able to attend the concert.
33. Infinitives can occur in the progressive but gerunds cannot.To be doingIt is used to indicate an activity in progress or ongoingShe had hoped to be working
34. Both gerunds and infinitives can occur in the perfect formhaving doneto have doneIt is used to indicate that the activity is in the pastWe appreciate having heard her sing.We?re fortunate to have heard her sing
35. A gerund can be used in the passive formI dislike being told a lie.
36. Havemakeletare causative verbs. They cause someone to do something.They are always followed by a noun phrase + base form of verb.Do not use an infinitive after these verbs.She made me fall.
37. She made her daughter go to the party.She let him take the camera.She had me prepare breakfast yesterday.
38. After causative verbs:getconvincepersuadeuse the infinitiveShe got me to work.She convinced me to work.
39. Sense-perception verbs:hear, listen tofeel, smell, seewatch, observe, noticeare followed by either a noun phrase + base or ?ing form with only a slight difference in meaning.
40. We saw people living in poverty.We saw them perform
41. Helpcan take an infinitive or base form.It can occur with or without a noun phrase.I helped them carry the boxes.I helped them to clean up after the party.
42. perfect infinitive: to have movedprogressive infinitive: to be workingperfect progressive infinitive:to have been playingpassive: to be seenperfect passive: to have been chosen
43. Perfect gerund: having movedpassive gerund: being doneperfect passive gerund: having been selected
44. The End!