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Models of gender. Bipolar model More feminine = less masculine Bidimensional model Androgyny Orthogonal model Oblique model. Traditional Western traits. Traditional masculinity Alone: Independent, disciplined, stoical Active: Aggressive, assertive, competitive

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models of gender
Models of gender
  • Bipolar model
    • More feminine = less masculine
  • Bidimensional model
    • Androgyny
    • Orthogonal model
    • Oblique model
traditional western traits
Traditional Western traits
  • Traditional masculinity
    • Alone: Independent, disciplined, stoical
    • Active: Aggressive, assertive, competitive
    • Bold: Leading, innovative, confident, courageous
    • Focussed: Task-oriented, outer-directed
    • Logical: Objective, analytic, rational, unsentimental, emotionally controlled
traditional traits
Traditional traits...
  • Traditional femininity
    • Related: Cooperative, trusting, interpersonal
    • Subordinate: Reliant, supportive, yielding
    • Subjective: Inward, intuitive, emotionally fluid
    • Giving: Empathic, sensitive, nurturing, creative
    • Cautious: Fragile, future-oriented
    • Passive: Receptive, reactive
theories about the existence of gender roles
Theories about the existence of gender roles
  • Biological and evolutionary necessity
    • Reproductive roles
    • Division of labor
  • Structural differences
    • Lateralization and specialization
  • Socialization differences
    • Parents, teachers, peers, media
development of gender roles
Development of gender roles
  • Biological theories?
    • Sociobiology and evolutionary psychology
    • Behavior genetics
      • Within your family, you see how different you are from your siblings.
      • Outside your family, you see how similar you are to your siblings.
  • Psychoanalytic view
    • Gender conflict and identification
more views on gender role development
More views on gender role development
  • Observational learning
    • Modeling
    • Social reinforcement
  • Cognitive development
  • Gender schemas
    • Social constructs emphasize differences
  • Consequences of growing up gendered
are gender stereotypes breaking down
Are gender stereotypes breaking down?
  • What do you think of metrosexuals?
  • What is the role of the church (or should we say churches ) in relation to gender roles and stereotypes?
  • What should real women be like?
  • What should real men be like?
  • How important is it to be gender-typical?
  • How do you react to people who violate gender characteristics?
  • Are all gender characteristics equally mutable?
learning sexual scripts what ought we to do
Learning sexual scripts: What ought we to do?
  • Who, what, when, where, how, why
  • Cultural scenarios
  • Interpersonal scripts
  • Intrapsychic or personal scripts
writing cultural scenarios and scripts
Writing cultural scenarios and scripts
  • The Rough Riders, a boys’ club at a suburban high school, which gives points to its members for engaging in sexual activity
  • Mama’s Posse, a sorority at State U which establishes status based on sexual encounters with high status men
  • A Christian family with three teenaged daughters
choice theory and sexual decisions
Choice theory and sexual decisions
  • Goals, resources, and cost-benefits analysis
  • What are the goals?
  • What are the resources?
  • What are the costs?
  • Choice theory: Rational analysis, satisficing, or maximizing?
  • Optimal foraging theory:
    • Delay cost and discounting the future
the context social networks
The context: Social networks
  • Scenarios and scripts
  • Principles of relationships
  • Discussing the range of scripts
  • Writing your own script
    • By stages
    • Identify principles
    • Connect to your values and goals
    • Make it specific
    • Review it frequently and re-commit
sexual expression through the life cycle
Sexual expression through the life cycle
  • Infancy
  • Childhood
  • Adolescence and cultural influence
  • Adulthood
  • Older adulthood
sexuality in infancy
Sexuality in infancy
  • Sexual response systems
  • Maternal hormones may affect girls and boys
  • Sexual exploration and play
sexual exploration in childhood
Sexual exploration in childhood
  • Continued exploration and self-pleasuring
  • Masturbation
  • Sex play with others
  • Imitative sexual expression
  • Parent’s role: Channel and educate
    • Start a script: When, who, what
    • Teach names of body parts, context for sexual expression
what are the changes of puberty

What are the changes of puberty?

Primary sex characteristics

Secondary sex characteristics

primary sex characteristics
Primary sex characteristics
  • Increased hormone production
  • Female cyclicity
  • Growth of genitals
  • Fertility
    • Menarche vs. ovulation
    • First ejaculation vs. mature sperm
secondary sex characteristics
Secondary sex characteristics
  • Female:
    • Appearance of pubic and axillary hair
    • Increase amount and size of body hair
    • Thickening of scalp hair
    • Larynx changes: Range lowers a fifth
    • Skeletal changes: hips and pelvis
    • Breast development in 3 stages
    • Fat redistribution
    • Lubrication: Skene’s & Bartholin’s glands
secondary sex characteristics1
Secondary sex characteristics
  • Male:
    • Appearance of pubic and axillary hair
    • Increase amount and size of body hair
    • Patterning of scalp hair
    • Larynx changes: Range lowers an octave
    • Skeletal changes: hips and shoulders
    • Breast development in 1 stage
    • Muscles harden
    • Ejaculation and lubrication (Cowper’s glands)
sexual experimenting in adolescence
Sexual experimenting in adolescence
  • Impact of puberty on sexual interest
    • Hormonal activation effects
    • Social effects of secondary sex characteristics
  • Masturbation, fantasy, and sexual stimulus learning
  • Sexual activity
  • Sexual health education
  • Sexual orientation: Actions and decisions
adult sexuality
Adult sexuality
  • The relationship context
  • Variations in sexual activity
  • Sex in the context of singleness
    • Never-marrieds
    • Separated/divorced/widowed
sex in older adults
Sex in older adults
  • Frequency may decline, duration increases
  • Benefits of experience
  • Effects of health changes
  • Hormone replacement therapies
  • Society’s attitudes and ignorance
intercourse by age 19
Intercourse by age 19

Kinsey, 1948/53 Zelnick & Kantner, 1980

Forest & Singh, 1990 Sonenstein et al, 1991

CDC, 1996 (by senior year of high school)

choice theory
Choice theory
  • Rational choice: Rate a potential partner or script on each of several characteristics that are important to you, and sum the ratings. Highest score wins.
  • Elimination by aspects (Tversky, 1972): Start with most important dimension, and eliminate those who score low. Proceed to next most important dimension, and so on, until only one option remains. May eliminate the best choice overall.
more choice theory
More choice theory
  • Satisficing (Simon, 1955): Set a cutoff at the minimum acceptable standard for each dimension/characteristic. Reject options if any values are below the cutoff. May miss the best choice overall.
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