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Gender & Violence Sociology of Gender Conference. Andrew Carvajal. All cartoons taken from Rapist: what typically comes to mind. Who is the stereotypical rapist?. The Sexual Victimization of College Women.

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Gender violence sociology of gender conference

Gender & Violence Sociology of Gender Conference

Andrew Carvajal

All cartoons taken from

Rapist what typically comes to mind
Rapist: what typically comes to mind...

  • Who is the stereotypical rapist?

The sexual victimization of college women
The Sexual Victimization of College Women

A collaboration of the National Institute of Justice (NJS) and Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJN)

Authors: Bonnie S. Fisher, Francis T. Cullen, Michael G. Turner

U.S. Department of Justice – December 2000

General information
General Information

  • College women face a greater risk of rape and other forms of sexual assault than women in the general population, and women in a comparable age group

  • Results based on a phone surveys with a random sample of 4,446 college women from all over the U.S.

  • Sexual victimization measured as respondents’ answers to whether they had experienced a variety of situations during their college experience

The findings
The Findings

  • 2.8 % of the sample had experienced either a completed rape (1.7%) or an attempted rape incident (1.1%) during the survey period

    • 1.8 % for rape and 1.3 % for attempted rape in undergraduates

    • 0.8% and 0% for non-undergraduates

  • However, projecting these numbers to a whole academic year, the estimated % of college girls who suffer full rape or attempted rape is 5%

    • Over the course of a degree (4 or 5 years) the % of completed or attempted rapes among women can climb to 20-25%

More findings
More Findings

  • Most women don’t define the incidents construed as rape by the researchers, as rape themselves

    • Are researchers overstating the problem, or students understating it?

  • 15.5% of the women were sexually victimized during the academic year

    • Either through rape, attempted rape, or threat of rape

When and where does victimization occur
When and where does victimization occur?

  • The vast majority of sexual victimizations occurred in the evening (after 6 p.m.)

  • 60% of on-campus rapes occurred in residences, 31% in other living quarters on-campus, and 10.3% in fraternities

Relation with the offender
Relation with the Offender

  • 90% of the victims knew their offender

Protective action
Protective action

  • In both completed rape and sexual coercion, victims were less likely to take protective action

    • Using protective action might lead attempts to rape or coerce sex to fail

  • Fewer than 5% of full or attempted rapes were reported to law enforcement officials

    • Amongst the reasons cited were fear of receiving hostility from the police and the judicial system

  • 13.1 % of victims had been stalked since the start of the school year

Varied risks
Varied Risks

  • 4 main factors consistently increased the risk of sexual victimization:

    • frequently drinking enough to get drunk

    • being unmarried

    • having been a victim of a sexual assault before the start of the school year

    • living on campus

School shootings a gender issue
School shootings: A Gender Issue?

  • Is gender the most critical factor in the latest wave of school shootings?

A school shooter profile
A School Shooter Profile

  • Following the shooting at Columbine the US Secret Service (2000) offered a report in which they said that there “is no profile” for school shooters

  • No profile???

Barry loukaitis feb 2 1996
Barry Loukaitis; Feb 2 1996

White Boy

Luke woodham oct 1 1997
Luke Woodham; Oct 1 1997

White Boy

Michael carneal dec 1 st 1997
Michael Carneal; Dec 1st 1997

White Boy


Mitchell johnson andrew golden march 24 1998
Mitchell Johnson & Andrew Golden; March 24 1998

White Boys

Kip kinkel may 21 1998
Kip Kinkel; May 21 1998

White Boy

Eric harris dylan klebold april 20 1999
Eric Harris & Dylan Klebold; April 20 1999

White Boys

Andrew williams march 5 2001
Andrew Williams; March 5 2001

White Boy

John jason mclaughlin sept 24 2003
John Jason McLaughlin; Sept 24 2003

White Boy

Eric hainstock sept 29 2006
Eric Hainstock; Sept 29 2006

White Boy

No profile
No Profile?

  • Maybe it is harder to identify a profile when it is the “norm”

    • The white, heterosexual, male is often the trait that most often goes unnoticed in our analyses of social problems

    • It is invisible (see Kimmel’s “What about the Boys”)

No profile1
No Profile?

  • What would have happened if the perpetrators of these shootings had been mainly women, or black males instead?

School shootings a surrogate debate
School shootings: A Surrogate Debate

  • Family changes, women in the workforce

  • Bad parenting

  • Depression/mental illness

  • Goth subculture

  • Gun control

  • Importance of religion, prayer, faith

  • Disrespectful youth/rebelliousness – absence of traditional values

School shootings a surrogate debate1
School shootings: A Surrogate Debate

  • Media, music, videogames, the internet

  • Maybe its time to bring gender into the picture!

More answers yes michael kimmel snips and snails and violent urges
More AnswersYes: Michael Kimmel“Snips and Snails… and Violent Urges”

  • Gender as single most obvious and intractable difference in violence in the US

  • We often talk about school shootings as “youth” and “teen” violence

    • But the majority of these teens are boys

    • Men and boys are responsible for 95% of violent crimes in the US

  • From early age boys learn that violence is an acceptable and admirable way of conflict resolution

Yes michael kimmel snips and snails and violent urges
Yes: Michael Kimmel“Snips and Snails… and Violent Urges”

  • Most school shooters subject to teasing, bashing and questioning of their masculinity

    • Some turn inward: depression, drug-abuse, isolation, suicide

    • Some turn outward: rage, violence

  • Violence not in male brain or testosterone: boys learn it

    • Media, sports, culture that glorifies heroic and redemptive violence

    • Fathers; 50% own guns

  • We need to look at how ideals of manhood became so entangled with violence

    • School shooters are “real boys” and want to prove it

No alvin poussaint
No: Alvin Poussaint

  • Major role of depression

    • Individuals trying to cope with internal anger and rage

  • Not everyone turns into violence, so those at risk should be referred to psychological counseling

    • Students should feel comfortable and encouraged to tell teachers about peers carrying weapons and making violent threats

    • Parents should see alienation, anger, making threats and getting into fights as warning signs

    • As a neighbour/observer, you should report parents who neglect or abuse their children to social service agencies

No alvin poussaint1
No: Alvin Poussaint

  • Offer alternative outlets to channel aggression

    • Sports, communications with family and friends, anger management

  • Youth tends to normalize the violence they see in the media, videogames

    • They don’t see that death is real

  • Institute programs that combat prejudice and promote tolerance

  • Schools should pay more attention to warning signs and the need for more moral education