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Gender & Violence Sociology of Gender Conference. Andrew Carvajal. All cartoons taken from Rapist: what typically comes to mind. Who is the stereotypical rapist?. The Sexual Victimization of College Women.

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Gender violence sociology of gender conference

Gender & Violence Sociology of Gender Conference

Andrew Carvajal

All cartoons taken from

Rapist what typically comes to mind

Rapist: what typically comes to mind...

  • Who is the stereotypical rapist?

The sexual victimization of college women

The Sexual Victimization of College Women

A collaboration of the National Institute of Justice (NJS) and Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJN)

Authors: Bonnie S. Fisher, Francis T. Cullen, Michael G. Turner

U.S. Department of Justice – December 2000

General information

General Information

  • College women face a greater risk of rape and other forms of sexual assault than women in the general population, and women in a comparable age group

  • Results based on a phone surveys with a random sample of 4,446 college women from all over the U.S.

  • Sexual victimization measured as respondents’ answers to whether they had experienced a variety of situations during their college experience

The findings

The Findings

  • 2.8 % of the sample had experienced either a completed rape (1.7%) or an attempted rape incident (1.1%) during the survey period

    • 1.8 % for rape and 1.3 % for attempted rape in undergraduates

    • 0.8% and 0% for non-undergraduates

  • However, projecting these numbers to a whole academic year, the estimated % of college girls who suffer full rape or attempted rape is 5%

    • Over the course of a degree (4 or 5 years) the % of completed or attempted rapes among women can climb to 20-25%

Rates compared to non college women

Rates compared to non-college women

More findings

More Findings

  • Most women don’t define the incidents construed as rape by the researchers, as rape themselves

    • Are researchers overstating the problem, or students understating it?

  • 15.5% of the women were sexually victimized during the academic year

    • Either through rape, attempted rape, or threat of rape

More findings1

More Findings

When and where does victimization occur

When and where does victimization occur?

  • The vast majority of sexual victimizations occurred in the evening (after 6 p.m.)

  • 60% of on-campus rapes occurred in residences, 31% in other living quarters on-campus, and 10.3% in fraternities

Relation with the offender

Relation with the Offender

  • 90% of the victims knew their offender

Protective action

Protective action

  • In both completed rape and sexual coercion, victims were less likely to take protective action

    • Using protective action might lead attempts to rape or coerce sex to fail

  • Fewer than 5% of full or attempted rapes were reported to law enforcement officials

    • Amongst the reasons cited were fear of receiving hostility from the police and the judicial system

  • 13.1 % of victims had been stalked since the start of the school year

Varied risks

Varied Risks

  • 4 main factors consistently increased the risk of sexual victimization:

    • frequently drinking enough to get drunk

    • being unmarried

    • having been a victim of a sexual assault before the start of the school year

    • living on campus

Verbal victimization

Verbal Victimization

Visual victimization

Visual Victimization

So who is the average rapist in our society

So, who is the average rapist in our society?

School shootings a gender issue

School shootings: A Gender Issue?

  • Is gender the most critical factor in the latest wave of school shootings?

A school shooter profile

A School Shooter Profile

  • Following the shooting at Columbine the US Secret Service (2000) offered a report in which they said that there “is no profile” for school shooters

  • No profile???

Barry loukaitis feb 2 1996

Barry Loukaitis; Feb 2 1996

White Boy

Luke woodham oct 1 1997

Luke Woodham; Oct 1 1997

White Boy

Michael carneal dec 1 st 1997

Michael Carneal; Dec 1st 1997

White Boy


Mitchell johnson andrew golden march 24 1998

Mitchell Johnson & Andrew Golden; March 24 1998

White Boys

Kip kinkel may 21 1998

Kip Kinkel; May 21 1998

White Boy

Eric harris dylan klebold april 20 1999

Eric Harris & Dylan Klebold; April 20 1999

White Boys

Andrew williams march 5 2001

Andrew Williams; March 5 2001

White Boy

John jason mclaughlin sept 24 2003

John Jason McLaughlin; Sept 24 2003

White Boy

Eric hainstock sept 29 2006

Eric Hainstock; Sept 29 2006

White Boy

No profile

No Profile?

  • Maybe it is harder to identify a profile when it is the “norm”

    • The white, heterosexual, male is often the trait that most often goes unnoticed in our analyses of social problems

    • It is invisible (see Kimmel’s “What about the Boys”)

No profile1

No Profile?

  • What would have happened if the perpetrators of these shootings had been mainly women, or black males instead?

School shootings a surrogate debate

School shootings: A Surrogate Debate

  • Family changes, women in the workforce

  • Bad parenting

  • Depression/mental illness

  • Goth subculture

  • Gun control

  • Importance of religion, prayer, faith

  • Disrespectful youth/rebelliousness – absence of traditional values

School shootings a surrogate debate1

School shootings: A Surrogate Debate

  • Media, music, videogames, the internet

  • Maybe its time to bring gender into the picture!

More answers yes michael kimmel snips and snails and violent urges

More AnswersYes: Michael Kimmel“Snips and Snails… and Violent Urges”

  • Gender as single most obvious and intractable difference in violence in the US

  • We often talk about school shootings as “youth” and “teen” violence

    • But the majority of these teens are boys

    • Men and boys are responsible for 95% of violent crimes in the US

  • From early age boys learn that violence is an acceptable and admirable way of conflict resolution

Yes michael kimmel snips and snails and violent urges

Yes: Michael Kimmel“Snips and Snails… and Violent Urges”

  • Most school shooters subject to teasing, bashing and questioning of their masculinity

    • Some turn inward: depression, drug-abuse, isolation, suicide

    • Some turn outward: rage, violence

  • Violence not in male brain or testosterone: boys learn it

    • Media, sports, culture that glorifies heroic and redemptive violence

    • Fathers; 50% own guns

  • We need to look at how ideals of manhood became so entangled with violence

    • School shooters are “real boys” and want to prove it

No alvin poussaint

No: Alvin Poussaint

  • Major role of depression

    • Individuals trying to cope with internal anger and rage

  • Not everyone turns into violence, so those at risk should be referred to psychological counseling

    • Students should feel comfortable and encouraged to tell teachers about peers carrying weapons and making violent threats

    • Parents should see alienation, anger, making threats and getting into fights as warning signs

    • As a neighbour/observer, you should report parents who neglect or abuse their children to social service agencies

No alvin poussaint1

No: Alvin Poussaint

  • Offer alternative outlets to channel aggression

    • Sports, communications with family and friends, anger management

  • Youth tends to normalize the violence they see in the media, videogames

    • They don’t see that death is real

  • Institute programs that combat prejudice and promote tolerance

  • Schools should pay more attention to warning signs and the need for more moral education

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